Ardyafani Webpage's











{May 6, 2013}  

Anantya Putri Ardyafani

2SA04/10611697

Tugas 3 Kewirausahaan #

Soal :

1. Rangkum materi etika bisnis & kewirausahaan

Jawab :

1. Etika Bisnis & Kewirausahaan

Business Ethics & Entrepreneurship

Business Ethics

Business ethics is a way of conducting business, which covers all aspects relating to individuals, companies and communities. Business ethics in a company can establish values, norms and behaviors of employees and leaders in building a just and healthy relationships with customers / partners, shareholders, communities.

The Company believes that the principles of good business is ethical business, ie a business with superior performance and continuous run by obeying the rules of ethics in accordance with applicable laws and regulations.

Business ethics can be standards and guidelines for all employees, including management and make it as a guideline for carrying out day-to-day work with based on high moral, honest, transparent and professional manner.

6 Levels Build Morale

According to psychologist, Lawrence Kohlberg, with his research for 20 years, concluded, that there are 6 levels (consisting of 3 levels, each 2 stage) were identified in the moral development of a person to deal with moral issues. Stages are as follows:

1. Level one: Phase Prakonvensional

In the first stage, a child may respond to social rules and expectations apply labels dandapat good, bad, right and wrong.

Stage one: Obedience and Punishment Orientation.

Stage two: Orientation Instrument and Relativity.

2. Level two: Stage Conventional

At this level, people do not just come to terms with expectations, but showed loyalitasterhadap group along with its norms. Teens at this time, to see other people situasidari perspective, from the perspective of social groups.

Stage Three: Orientation on Interpersonal Conformity.

Stage Four: Orientation on Law and Order.

3. Level three: Phase Postkonvensional, Autonomous, or Principled.

At this stage, a person no longer simply accept the value and normakelompoknya. He actually tried to see the situation from the point of view that is adilmempertimbangkan interests of others. He questioned the value yangdiadopsi by law and society and redefined in terms of self-chosen moral principles that can be justified rationally. Legal and proper value is in accordance with the principles that motivate rational people to run it.

4. Stage Five: Orientation on Social Contract

This stage, one becomes aware that it has a wide variety of views and conflicting pendapatpersonal and emphasize fair way to achieve consensusdengan agreement, contract, and mature processes. He believes that the value dannorma are relative, and in spite of all democratic consensus be tolerated.

Stage Six: Orientation on the Universal Principles of Ethics. The final stage, the correct action is defined in terms of moral principles yangdipilih for comprehensiveness, universality, and consistency. The reason someone untukmelakukan what is right based on the commitment to the principles moraltersebut and he saw it as a criteria to evaluate all other moral rules dantatanan.

Application Moral Standards

Morality is a guideline of the individual or group about what was right and wrong, or good and evil.
The nature of moral standards:

Issues related to the moral standards that we consider to be seriously hurt or will actually benefit humans.
Moral standards can not be set or changed by certain authoritative decision of the board.
Moral standards must take precedence over other values, including (especially) self-interest.
Moral standard based on an impartial consideration.
Moral standards associated with specific emotions and specific vocabulary.

Moral standards, as such, is a standard relating to the issues that we think have serious consequences, based on the reasoning that good is not authority, beyond self-interest, based on an impartial consideration, and that the offense is associated with feelings of guilt and shame and with emotion and specific vocabulary.
Moral Responsibility
When is a person morally responsible or blamed, for making mistakes? A person is morally responsible for his actions and adverse effects that have been known to:
a. Failed to do or prevented and morally wrong because the person intentionally
or freely fails to perform or prevent it.
b .. Person who performed or carried out deliberately and freely
There is general agreement, that there are two conditions that completely eliminates a person’s moral responsibility for causing harm;
1. Ignorance
2. Inability
Both are called conditions fully forgive forgive because of the responsibility for something. If someone does not know, or can not avoid what he did, then he was not doing it consciously, it is free and can not be blamed for his actions.
However, ignorance and incompetence are not always forgive someone, one possible exception is when a person intentionally, let him not want to know tertentu.Ketidakmampuan problems can be the result of internal and external environment that cause a person not to do something or not be able to resist doing something . A person may lack power, skill, opportunity or sufficient resources to act.
Inability reducing liability because someone does not have a responsibility to do (or prohibit doing) something you can not control him. A person may be physically blocked or unable to act, or psychologically handicapped people’s minds so stop controlling his actions. As far as the environment causes one can not control his actions or prevent certain losses, was mistakenly blame
In addition to the two conditions that proclaims it (ignorance and incompetence), which completely eliminates the moral responsibility of a person by mistake, there are some mitigating factors, which alleviate the moral responsibility of a person who depends on the clarity of the error. Mitigating factors that include:
• Environment that resulted in an uncertain, but there is also not sure about what
he was doing (it affects a person’s knowledge)
• Environment is difficult, but not impossible to avoid doing so (it
This affects the freedom of the individual)
• Environment that reduces but does not completely eliminate a person’s involvement in
an action (this affects the degree to which a person actually cause
losses)
It can lighten one’s responsibility for erroneous behavior that depends on the fourth factor, which is the seriousness of the error. Fundamental conclusions about the moral responsibility for any errors or damages that mitigate an individual’s moral responsibility:
1. Individual morally, is responsible for the actions that he did wrong (or the
she mistakenly neglect) and the effects of loss caused (or that he failed to prevent)
when it is done freely and consciously.
2. Moral responsibility entirely eliminated (or condoned) by ignorance and
inability
3. Moral responsibility for any errors or losses alleviated by:
• Uncertainties
• Difficulty
Involvement of small weights (although not mitigate the failure if a person has a special duty to prevent errors), but the extent of coverage of such things lighten one’s moral responsibility to (with) the seriousness of the error or loss. The greater seriousness, the first three factors had little to alleviate.
Examples of Business Ethics Violation

Business ethics violation against the law

A company X because of the condition of the bankrupt company finally decided to Doing layoffs to their employees. But in doing the layoffs, the company did not provide pesongan as stipulated in Law no. 13/2003 on Manpower. In this case the company x can be said to violate the principle of obedience to the law.

Violation of business ethics to transparency

X Foundation organizes a high school education. In the new school year charge of Rp 500,000, – to every new student. This school levy did not inform them when to sign up, so after they received would not want to pay. Besides, there was no official information or explanation about the use of the money to parents.
After urged by many parties, the new Foundation provides information that the money was used to purchase seragama teacher. In this case, the Foundation and the school can be considered to violate the principle of transparency

Violation of business ethics to accountability

A private hospital by the Board announced to all employees who will sign the civil servants resigning otomotais stated. A as one of the employees in the private hospital was ignoring announcements from the board because he thought she was appointed by the directors in this business, so that all rights and obligations related to the business he is not the Board. Do not give your own party an official circular on the policy.
Because of that attitude, A declared finally resigned. Private hospital of this case it can be said to violate the principle of accountability because there is no clear function, implementation and accountability between business and the Hospital Board

Business ethics violation of the principle of accountability

A recruitment company in Jogja for personnel recruitment baby sitter. And agreements stated in the announcement that the company promised to send prospective workers after 2 months following the training promised to be delivered to the destination countries. The company even promises that any costs incurred will be refunded if the applicant so they do not leave your home country. B terarik with the offer directly register and pay as much as Rp 7 million for administrative costs and obtaining a visa and passport. However, after 2 months of training, B never dispatched, even up to one year is not clear. When confirmed, the recruitment company has always argued there was a delay, and so on. From these cases it can be concluded that the Company had violated the principle of recruitment agency accountability by ignoring the rights of B as prospective workers should diberangnka to destination country for work.

Business ethics violation of the principle of fairness

A leading property company in Yogyakarta do not give a permit to build a house from the developer to the two customers in the area of ​​residential parcels owned by the company. The first consumer has fulfilled its obligation to pay the land price according to the agreement and other administrative costs.
While both the consumer still has the obligation to pay the excess land, because every time you pay the developer always refused on the grounds there is no permission from the central company (headquartered in Jakarta). The odd thing is in the area of ​​the parcel of land is only two people who have a permit construction of homes, while 30 other customers have been given permission and they have built homes all are. The reason given by the company is eager to give lessons to consumers last two because the two men have provoked other consumers to immediately prosecute home construction permits. Of these cases the property company had violated the principle of fairness (fairness) because it does not fulfill the rights of stakeholders (consumers) for reasons that make no sense.

Business ethics violation to the principles of honesty

A development company in Sleman make a deal with a contractor to build a housing. Under the agreement, the developer provides the building specifications to contractors. But in practice, the contractor company has impaired the quality specifications of the building without the knowledge of the developer company. After a few months the condition of the building was seriously damaged. In this case the contractor can be said to have violated the principle of honesty because it does not meet the specifications of the building which has been agreed with the developer

Violation of the principles of business ethics empathy

A client, let’s call it X, from finance companies are late paying car installments corresponding due dates because of her severe pain. X had informed the company about the delay to pay the installments, but did not get a response from the company. Several weeks after the due date the company went straight to the X to collect installments and threatening to take the car that was repaid it. Charge the company in a way that is not polite and do the psychological pressure to customers. In this case we can mengakategorikan the company has violated the principle of empathy for the customer because the company can actually give a warning to customers that the wise and proper manner.



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