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{December 23, 2011}  

Bella Swan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article describes a work or element of fiction in a primarily in-universe style. Please help rewrite it to explain the fiction more clearly and provide non-fictional perspective. (June 2010)
Isabella “Bella” Marie Swan
Twilight character

Bella Swan as portrayed by Kristen Stewart in the New Moon movie.
First appearance Twilight
Last appearance Breaking Dawn
Created by Stephenie Meyer
Portrayed by Kristen Stewart
Nickname(s) Bella
Vampire girl (by Emily Young & Embry Call)
Species Human (Twilight, New Moon, Eclipse, and Books 1 and 2 of Breaking Dawn)
Vampire (Book 3 of Breaking Dawn)
Gender Female
Occupation Student (through Twilight to Eclipse)
Employee at Newton’s Olympic Outfitters (New Moon and Eclipse)
Family Charlie Swan (father)
Renée Dwyer (mother)
Phil Dwyer (stepfather)
Carlisle Cullen (father-in-law)
Esme Cullen (mother-in-law)
Alice Cullen (sister-in-law)
Rosalie Hale (sister-in-law)
Emmett Cullen (brother-in-law)
Jasper Hale (brother-in-law)
Spouse(s) Edward Cullen
Children Renesmee Carlie Cullen

Isabella MarieBellaSwan (later Bella Cullen) is the fictional protagonist of the Twilight series, written by Stephenie Meyer. The Twilight series, consisting of the novels Twilight, New Moon, Eclipse, and Breaking Dawn, is primarily narrated from Bella’s point of view. In the film series, Bella is portrayed by actress Kristen Stewart.

In Twilight, Bella moves to her father’s home in Forks, Washington, meets the mysterious Cullen family, and falls in love with Edward Cullen. However, she soon discovers that the family is a coven of vampires. Bella expresses a desire to become a vampire herself, against Edward’s wishes. In the second novel, New Moon, Edward and the other Cullens leave Forks in an effort to keep Bella safe from the vampire world. Jacob Black, a member of the Quileute tribe who is also a shape shifter taking a wolf form, comforts the distraught and severely depressed Bella. She comes to care deeply for Jacob, though less than she loves Edward. In Eclipse, Bella becomes engaged to Edward, and they marry in Breaking Dawn. Edward then transforms Bella into a vampire after she nearly dies giving birth to their daughter, Renesmee Cullen.



[edit] Concept and creation

The premise for both the Bella Swan character and the Twilight series originated in a dream Stephenie Meyer had in which an “average girl” and a “fantastically beautiful, sparkly … vampire … were having an intense conversation in a meadow in the woods.”[1] In this dream, the pair “were discussing the difficulties inherent in the facts that … they were falling in love with each other while … the vampire was particularly attracted to the scent of her blood, and was having a difficult time restraining himself from killing her.”[1]

Meyer’s original characters were unnamed; she took to calling the characters, who would later become Edward Cullen and Bella, ‘he’ and ‘she’ for the purpose of convenience as she, “didn’t want to lose the dream.”[1] The name ‘Isabella’ was decided upon, Meyer explains, because “after spending so much time with [the character], I loved her like a daughter. … Inspired by that love, I gave her the name I was saving for my daughter, …Isabella.” [1]

Bella’s positive reception at her new school in Forks, particularly her popularity with male characters, was modelled after Meyer’s real life move from high school to college. Comparing her transitional experience to Bella’s, Meyer noted that after her own move to college her “stock went through the roof,”[2] commenting that “beauty is a lot more subjective than you might think.”[2]

[edit] Appearances

[edit] Twilight

Twilight is about a seventeen-year-old girl named Bella Swan, who moves from her mother’s home in Phoenix, Arizona, to live with her father in her birthtown of Forks, Washington. There, she becomes intrigued by a student, Edward Cullen. When Edward saves her life, he exhibits super-human qualities. Bella learns from family friend Jacob Black that Quileute legends say the Cullen family are vampires.[3] Edward eventually admits to this truth, though his family hunts only animals, not humans, through moral choice.[4] Edward constantly warns Bella against being with him, perceiving her life to be at constant risk if she continues to associate with him because the scent of her blood is more powerful to him than that of any other human he has ever encountered. Bella’s love and confidence in Edward’s restraint is such that his warnings go unheeded, and on an outing with the Cullens she becomes the target of a sadistic vampire, James. With his family’s help, Edward is able to save Bella from James’ predations, but Edward is still unwilling to change Bella into a vampire himself.[5]

[edit] New Moon

New Moon begins with Bella’s eighteenth birthday. During a party at the Cullens, she gets a small paper cut while opening an envelope. Edward’s brother, Jasper, instinctively hungering for her blood, tries to attack her. Edward realizes that his relationship with Bella puts her in danger. In a misguided attempt to protect Bella, he convinces her that he no longer loves her and moves away with his family, leaving her heartbroken and depressed for months.

To appease her worried father, Bella goes to a movie with her friend Jessica. While there, she carelessly approaches a group of dangerous-looking men outside a bar and discovers she can hear Edward’s voice when her adrenaline is high. Desperate to hear his voice again, Bella seeks out danger; she asks Jacob Black to repair two motorcycles and teach her to ride one. Their friendship grows to be very strong, and Jacob admits that he has romantic feelings for Bella, though she does not reciprocate them. When a vampire named Laurent tries to attack her, Bella is saved by a pack of giant wolves. Later, Bella learns that Jacob and other tribe members are shapeshifters who assume a wolf form to protect humans from vampires. Bella also discovers that the vampire Victoria has returned to Forks seeking to kill Bella to avenge her mate, James’, death.

To hear Edward’s voice, Bella attempts cliff-diving and nearly drowns, but she is saved by Jacob. Edward, after being mistakenly informed by Rosalie that Bella has committed suicide, travels to Volterra, Italy, to request the Volturi to destroy him. Alice returns to Forks and discovers Bella is alive; she and Bella pursue Edward to Italy and successfully prevent him from showing himself in daylight to humans, an act that would result in his execution. The trio are taken to the Volturi. Because Bella knows about vampires, the Volturi want to kill her, but Alice claims she has foreseen Bella becoming a vampire. Because most humans are unaware that vampires exist, the Volturi threaten to kill Bella if this does not happen soon. Upon returning home, Edward reveals to Bella that he never stopped loving her, he only left Forks because he thought it would protect Bella. He apologizes for this misguided action and asks for her forgiveness, which Bella quickly grants. Bella, intent on becoming a vampire, decides that Edward’s family should vote on her fate. All but Rosalie and Edward vote affirmatively for her to be changed, but Edward agrees to change her himself if she will marry him first.[6]

[edit] Eclipse

Eclipse continues the drama of Bella and Edward’s relationship. Edward explains that he is reluctant to change Bella into a vampire because he believes that vampires are soulless creatures who have no place in heaven. Bella, whose opinion of marriage is jaded by her own parents’ early divorce, agrees to marry Edward on the condition that he will make love to her while she is still human and then turn her into a vampire. He initially refuses, saying that he could easily lose control in the heat of the moment and unintentionally kill her. However, seeing how important it is to Bella, he agrees to try, but only after they are married.

The plot is driven by the machinations of the vampire Victoria, who first encountered Bella and the Cullens during the first book, Twilight. Victoria, seeking to avenge her lover, James’, death, hunts Bella while building a new vampire army. To combat this threat, a grudging truce is struck between the Cullens and the Native American shape-shifting wolf pack led by Sam Uley and Jacob Black, who pits himself against Edward as a love interest for Bella. Initially, Bella considers Jacob only as a friend but, despite her engagement to Edward, she shares a kiss with Jacob and realizes she loves him as well. Ultimately, Edward accepts Bella’s love for Jacob and successfully destroys Victoria. Bella acknowledges that Edward is the most important person in her life, agreeing to announce their engagement to her father.[7]

[edit] Breaking Dawn

Near the beginning of Breaking Dawn, Bella marries Edward. They spend their honeymoon on Isle Esme, a fictional small island that was given to Esme as a gift from Carlisle. They consummate their marriage, but their lovemaking sparks a conflict between the newlywed couple: Edward is horrified that he has bruised his wife, but Bella insists that she is fine and wants Edward to make love to her again. He vows not to do so again while she is still human. He eventually gives in. Afterwards, Bella becomes very sick and realizes that she is pregnant with Edward’s child.

Edward is shocked and rushes Bella home to see Carlisle, who, as a doctor, confirms that she is expecting a child. As the pregnancy takes a toll on Bella’s health, Edward tries to talk her into having an abortion to save her own life. However, Bella feels a bond with her unborn child and insists on giving birth. Soon, Edward comes to love the baby as well, after he hears its thoughts and learns that the baby loves Bella in return and doesn’t mean to hurt her.

Bella nearly dies giving birth but Edward successfully delivers their baby girl and then injects his venom into Bella’s heart, thus healing her wounds by turning her into a vampire. During Bella’s painful transformation, Jacob imprints—an involuntary process in which a shape-shifter finds his soul mate—on the baby, Renesmee Cullen.

After a vampire named Irina mistakes Renesmee for an immortal vampire child (a creation that is forbidden in the vampire world), the Volturi arrive to destroy the Cullens as punishment for the alleged transgression. Edward stands with Bella and their allies to convince the Volturi that Renesmee is not an immortal child and poses no threat to their existence. Once the Volturi leave, Edward and Bella are finally free to live their lives in peace with their daughter.[8]

[edit] Characterization

[edit] Physical appearance

Bella is described in the novels as being very pale with brown hair, chocolate brown eyes, and a heart-shaped face. Beyond this, a detailed description of her appearance is never given in the series. Stephenie Meyer explains that she “left out a detailed description of Bella in the book so that the reader could more easily step into her shoes.”[9] While Meyer stresses that “Bella’s looks are open to interpretation”,[9] she does supply her own personal interpretation on her website, describing Bella as:

“very fair-skinned, with long, straight, dark brown hair and chocolate brown eyes. Her face is heart-shaped—a wide forehead with a widow’s peak, large, wide-spaced eyes, prominent cheekbones, and then a thin nose and a narrow jaw with a pointed chin. Her lips are a little out of proportion, a bit too full for her jaw line. Her eyebrows are darker than her hair and more straight than they are arched. She’s five foot four inches tall, slender but not at all muscular, and weighs about 115 pounds. She has stubby fingernails because she has a nervous habit of biting them.”[9]

Bella also has a small crescent-shaped scar on her hand where she was bitten by James, a tracker vampire, in Twilight. The scar is described as being pale, always a few degrees colder than the rest of her body, and sparkles slightly in the sunlight.

After Bella was changed into a vampire by her husband Edward Cullen in Breaking Dawn, in keeping with the appearance of most vampires, she became more beautiful, her eyes turned red, and her skin became paler.

[edit] Personality traits and abilities

Bella is described as being clumsy and stubborn. She is also said to be a terrible liar, but occasionally demonstrates good acting ability. She has a habit of biting her lower lip. She often exclaims: “Holy crow!” Bella becomes faint when she smells blood, though this no longer bothers her once she becomes a vampire. Stephenie Meyer has stated that Bella’s “tragic flaw” in Eclipse is her lack of self-knowledge.[10] After being turned into a vampire, she describes having a much clearer view of the world. She is also very self-controlled, being able to ignore the scent of human blood on her first hunting trip.[8] Bella’s private mind that was able to repel some vampires’ mental abilities while she was human evolved after she became a vampire; her skill strengthened, allowing her to shield herself and those around her from other vampires’ mental gifts.[8] By the end of Breaking Dawn, she is able to cast the shield away from herself. She is also described by Edward as “very graceful”, even for a vampire, in comparison to her earlier clumsiness.

[edit] Film portrayal

In the film adaptations, Bella is portrayed by actress Kristen Stewart.[11] Meyer stated that she was “very excited” to see Stewart play the part and that she was “thrilled to have a Bella who has practice [in a vast array of film genres]”, since, according to Meyer, Twilight has moments that fit into many genres.[12]

[edit] Reception

Bella has received generally negative reception from critics. Publishers Weekly states that, after her transformation into a vampire, “it’s almost impossible to identify with her” in Breaking Dawn.[13] Lilah Lohr of the Chicago Tribune compares Bella’s character to the story of the Quileute wolves and describes it as “less satisfying.”[14] During Twilight, Kirkus Reviews stated that “Bella’s appeal is based on magic rather than character”, but that her and Edward’s “portrayal of dangerous lovers hits the spot”.[15] In the review of New Moon, Kirkus Reviews said that Bella’s personality was “flat and obsessive”.[16] Laura Miller of said, in regards to Edward and Bella, “neither of them has much personality to speak of.”[17] Entertainment Weeklys Jennifer Reese, in her review of Breaking Dawn noted, in regard to Bella, “You may wish she had loftier goals and a mind of her own, but these are fairy tales, and as a steadfast lover in the Disney princess mold, Bella has a certain saccharine appeal”, and that during Bella’s pregnancy “she is not only hard to identify with but positively horrifying, especially while guzzling human blood to nourish the infant.”[18] Washington Post journalist Elizabeth Hand noted how Bella was often described as breakable and that “Edward’s habit of constantly pulling her onto his lap or having her ride on his back further emphasize her childlike qualities”, continuing to write that “the overall effect is a weird infantilization that has repellent overtones to an adult reader and hardly seems like an admirable model to foist upon our daughters (or sons).”[19] Gina Dalfonzo, in an article posted on the National Review website, calls Bella “self-deprecating” before her transformation into a vampire, and afterwards she is “insufferably vain”.[20] Dalfonzo also states that Bella gets what she wants and discovers her worth “by giving up her identity and throwing away nearly everything in life that matters.”[20]

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{December 23, 2011}  

Won Bin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a Korean name; the family name is Won.
Won Bin

Won Bin as LG Infinia smart TV model, 2011
Born Kim Do-jin
November 10, 1977 (age 34)
Jeongseon, Gangwon-do, South Korea
Nationality  South Korea
Ethnicity Koreans
Education BFTV
Alma mater Yong-In University,
Baekje Arts College
Occupation Actor, model
Years active 1997 – 2005
Agent Eden Nine Entertainment
Height 1.78 m (5 ft 10 in)
Weight 63 kg (140 lb)
Korean name
Hangul 원빈
Hanja 元斌
Revised Romanization Won Bin
McCune–Reischauer Wŏn Pin
Birth name
Hangul 김도진
Hanja 金道振
Revised Romanization Gim Do-jin
McCune–Reischauer Kim To-jin

Won Bin (Hangul: 원빈; born Kim Do-jin; Hangul: 김도진 on November 10, 1977) is a top South Korean actor and model.



[edit] Early life and beginnings

Won was born and raised in a hamlet in the north of Jeongseon in Gangwon-do, South Korea. He is the fifth and youngest child, with one brother and three sisters. His father was formerly employed in a mine and his mother worked on a farm; both of his parents are now retired. As was common for other children living in mountaineous regions, Won spent most of his time playing around with friends in the mountains and rivers, and later explained: “I came back home most nights at sunset with a black and dusty face.” He was frequently shy, introspective, and quiet, character traits that would continue to follow him throughout adulthood.[7] While not talkative or outgoing, he excelled at athletics. Won started taekwondo lessons and now holds a black belt.[8] As a young boy, he initially planned to become a car mechanic due to his interest in car racing and motorcycling. Won graduated from a mechanical high school, where he studied car repair and mechanics.

In November 1995, a cable television station was looking to recruit and hire new actors; Won applied and was accepted in his last semester of high school. He started to take acting classes at the station’s headquarters and appeared in several dramas. The following month, Won signed an acting contract with a talent agency.

[edit] Career

Won made his screen debut with a supporting role in the 1997 drama Propose. His role in Ready Go! (1998) helped hone his acting chops. After Ready Go!, he took a break and entered a college called Paekche Institute of the Arts in 1998 to take acting classes. In 1999, Won came back to the screen with a lead role in drama Kwangki from which he was recognized as a promising young actor and a teen heartthrob.

He made his big breakthrough in 2000 with drama Kkokji and Autumn Fairy Tale. His role as a rebellious youngest son in Kkokji proved his acting potential and his role in the widely successful drama Autumn Fairy Tale landed him on the A-list for Korean performers. Autumn Fairy Tale gained wide popularity in Asia and he became one of the most popular Korean actors in Korea and Asia as well. In 2002, Won became the first Korean actor to get wide popularity in Japan through the first Japan and Korea joint production drama Friends.

Won also had roles in several popular movies, including Guns & Talks and My Brother, but it is his portrayal of the sensitive younger brother in the blockbuster war movie Taegukgi (aka Taegukgi: The Brotherhood of War) (2004) that has truly cemented his fame in the international realm. With the success of the critically acclaimed Taegukgi, recognition of his acting skills has reached an ever-wider international audience. Taegukgi is the best selling movie in South Korea in 2004 with 11.75 million admissions.[9]

His career was interrupted by his mandatory service to the South Korean Army. After graduating from the Graduate School of Arts in Yong-In University in 2005, Won started his military duty in November 2005 and stationed at the Korean Demilitarized Zone, a position for which he volunteered.[10][11][12] On June 2, 2006, the military officially confirmed than Won Bin would be no longer active.[13] The decision was made by the military when Won Bin sustained injury to his ACL. He had undergone surgery and was officially discharged on June 7, 2006.[14] After the surgery, he had gone through rehabilitation program for more than one year to recover from the injury.

Won was appointed as UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador of the Korean Committee on September 6, 2007. He has participated in various programs and charity events in Korea for UNICEF from that time on, and has appeared in several promotional videos.

In April 2008, Won finally confirmed that his re-debut film would be Mother directed by Bong Joon-ho. Filming started in September 2008 and finished in February 2009. The film was selected to compete in the Un Certain Regard section of the 2009 Cannes Film Festival. He walked the red carpet at the film’s world premiere on May 16, 2009 in the 2009 Cannes Film Festival.[15] Won’s new movie The Man from Nowhere was released in August 2010.

[edit] Filmography

[edit] Films

Year Title Korean Title Role
2001 Guns & Talks 킬러들의 수다 Ha-yun
2004 Taegukgi 태극기 휘날리며 Lee Jin-seok
My Brother 우리형 Jong-hyun
2009 Mother 마더 Do-joon
2010 The Man from Nowhere 아저씨 Cha Tae-sik

[edit] Television drama

Year Title Role Network
1997 Propose KBS
1998 Ready, Go! Han Seung-joo MBC
1999 Kwangki Kang Min KBS
2000 Small Station KBS
Tough Guy’s Love (aka: Kkokji) Song Myung-tae KBS
Autumn in My Heart Han Tae-suk KBS
2002 Friends Kim Ji-hoon TBS & MBC

[edit] Books

  • 2000: “dream in HEAVEN” photobook (released in Dec 2000 in Korea, and Mar 2002 in Japan) – 100 pages photo essays with photos taken in Bali, Indonesia and Korea.
  • 2002: “WWW-Wonbin Wide pinup Web” photobook (released in September in Japan) – 40 pages photo essays.
  • 2005: “28 Day ‘n Year Won Bin” Premium Box Set – DVD & photobook (released in February in Japan) – 60-minute DVD and 144 pages of photos with sincere essays written by Won Bin revolving around his private life and his photo session trip to the Czech Republic, Japan and Korea, as well as collector’s gifts.
  • 2006: “BINUS” DVD (released in March in Japan) – To show his gratitude to his fans for their years of support, Won Bin has recorded this candid, personal DVD (60 minutes) to be shared just between him and us, the fans – hence the title BINUS (BINUS is the name of his official fanclub), before fulfilling his mandatory military service. It includes revealing footage and private life, with Won Bin re-visiting many places in his hometown to share with his fans his background and childhood memories.
  • 2006: “Dear Wonbin” photobook (released in May in Japan) – Designed like a diary book, with drawings by Won Bin.
  • 2010: “I Love You” Private DVD & Photobook (released in December in Japan) – 105-minute DVD and photobook, filmed in Ireland

[edit] Modeling

[edit] TV commercials/Advert

  • 1999: 018 Telecom [16]
  • 2000: French Cafe, Dong Yang Life Insurance [16]
  • 2001: KTF ‘Magic N’ Cell Phone, Dong Yang Life Insurance, Hite Beer, Namyang French Cafe, Dean Clau Eau de Toilette, Nadri Cosmetic, Haitai Potato Chips, Lotte ‘Atlas’ Chocolate [16]
  • 2002: Woori Bank, Baskin Robbins 31 Ice-cream, Namyang French Cafe, Dean Clau Eau de Toilette & men’s skin-care products [16]
  • 2003: Woori Bank, Baskin Robbins 31 Ice-cream, Namyang French Cafe [16]
  • 2004: Woori Bank, LG Cyon Cell Phone, Missha make-up product [17]
  • 2005: LG Cyon Cell Phone, Missha make-up product, FORVAL I.T./Telecom (Japan) [17]
  • 2008: Nintendo Wii Video Game, Maxim T.O.P Espresso [18]
  • 2009: Maxim T.O.P Espresso [18]
  • 2010: HITE MAX Beer, Maxim T.O.P Espresso, Cuckoo HomeSys, Tous Les Jours Bakery, Olympus Camera, The Face Shop, LG Beyond[19]
  • 2011: LG INFINIA Smart TV & Cinema3D TV, Cuckoo HomeSys, SK Telecom, HITE Beer, The Face Shop, LG Beyond, Maxim T.O.P Espresso, Olympus Camera, Tous Les Jours Bakery[19]

[edit] Fashion brand spokesmodels

  • 1999: Clride, Yell
  • 2000: Clride, Jambangee
  • 2001: Jambangee, Ziozia [16]
  • 2002: Ziozia, GIA, Visaruno of Marui 0101 Dept Store (Japan) [16]
  • 2003: GIA, C.O.A.X., Visaruno of Marui 0101 Dept Store (Japan) [16]
  • 2004: Omphalos, Ziozia [17]
  • 2005: Ziozia
  • 2008: Ziozia [18]
  • 2010: Hang Ten
  • 2011: CHRIS.CHRISTY, basichouse, K2 [19]

[edit] Awards and nominations

[edit] Won (acting awards)

[edit] Other awards/honors

[edit] Nominations

[edit] Magazine/Media recognition

  • 2000: Best Dresser of the year
  • 2002: Voted as the “April 2002 Most Beautiful Man” by The first Asian celebrity to win in this monthly poll.[30]
  • 2004: Chosen as one of the eight “Coolest Guy Celebrity” in the readers’ survey of 9 international ELLEgirl magazines.[31]
  • 2005: Voted #1 “Favorite Asian Star” (2005) in the readers’ survey by Japanese magazine “CanCam”.
  • 2005: Voted #1 “Favorite Asian Star” (2005) in the readers’ survey by Japanese magazine “”.[32]
  • 2006: Voted #1 “Favorite Asian Star” (2006) in the readers’ survey by Japanese magazine “”.
  • 2007: Voted #1 “Favorite Asian Star” (2007) in the readers’ survey by Japanese magazine “”.

[edit] Charity works

As UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador, Won Bin has participated in various programs and charity events.

  • 2007.09.06 – Appointed as UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador.[33]
  • 2007.10.03 – Attended the International Peace Marathon Festival in Seoul to raise fund for UNICEF.
  • 2007.11.26 – Attended a charity fashion show to raise fund for UNICEF.[34]
  • 2008.02.28 – Attended the “Clean meals, Happy sharing” campaign sponsored by UNICEF and Hanwha Resort.[35]
  • 2008.06.24 – Promoting the Awoo Doll campaign.[36]
  • 2008.08.20 – Raised fund through photo project with Louis Vuitton and GQ Korea.[37]
  • 2008.11.27 – Promoting UNICEF Jumper to raise fund.
  • 2008.12.22 – Visited an orphanage in Seoul and presented the children there with Christmas gifts.[38]
  • 2009.04.04-13 – Visited Gambia for UNICEF, visited relief center, hospital and schools.[39][40]
  • 2010.09.12-17 – Visited East Timor for UNICEF. watched over the vaccinations and educational work being done on site by UNICEF. [41][42][43][44]

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{December 23, 2011}  

Hyun Bin

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a Korean name; the family name is Kim.
Hyun Bin

Hyun Bin at his fan signing event on January 22, 2011.
Born Kim Tae-pyung
September 25, 1982 (age 29)
Seoul, South Korea
Alma mater Chung-Ang University[1]
Occupation Actor
Years active 2003–present
Height 1.84 m (6 ft 12 in)[1]
Korean name
Hangul 현빈
Revised Romanization Hyeonbin
McCune–Reischauer Hyŏnbin
Birth name
Hangul 김태평
Revised Romanization Gim Tae-pyeong
McCune–Reischauer Kim T’aep’yŏng

Hyun Bin (Korean: 현빈, also romanized as Hyeon Bin) (born Kim Tae Pyung on September 25, 1982) is a South Korean actor. He is best known for his lead roles in the dramas My Name is Kim Sam Soon in 2005, and Secret Garden in 2010.



[edit] Career

Hyun shot to stardom in 2005 when he appeared in the hit drama My Name is Kim Sam Soon with Kim Sun-ah. It was a success with an average rating of over 37% and 50.5% for the finale. He won the Top Excellence award at the MBC Drama Awards. In 2008 he took the leading role in The World That They Live In where he played television PD Jung Ji-Oh, opposite Song Hye-Kyo who played television PD Ju Jun-Young.

From November 2009 to March 2010 Hyun filmed with Tang Wei in Late Autumn (2010). It is a remake of a 1966 Korean film with the same name, directed by Kim Tae-Yong.[2][3] Late Autumn was shot in Seattle, Washington.[4][5]

In 2010 he starred in Korean drama Secret Garden in which he portrayed a young and arrogant department store owner who falls in love with a penniless stunt woman played by Ha Ji-won. He also contributed to the soundtrack with “That Man”, which peaked at number one in eight Korean music portals.[6] In February 2011 his film, Come Rain, Come Shine, premiered In Competition at the 61st Berlin International Film Festival.[7]

On 7 March 2011, Hyun enlisted in the Marine Corps in Pohang, Gyeongsangbuk-do Province to serve 21 months of compulsory military service. He is due to be discharged on 6 December 2012[8]

[edit] Personal life

Hyun was born and raised in Seoul. He has an older brother. He graduated from Chung-Ang University in 2004 where he majored in Theater Studies. Since 2009 he has been enrolled at the same university for a master’s degree.[1]

In February 2006 Hyun began dating Hwang Ji-hyeon, but they separated in March 2007.[9]

[edit] Relationship with Song Hye-kyo

He met Song Hye-kyo in 2008 while shooting the drama The World That They Live In, and in June 2009 their agencies confirmed that they were dating.[10][11] Hours after Hyun Bin’s military enlistment in March 2011, his and Song’s agencies confirmed speculation that the couple had broken up. According to the joint press release, “Both have been very busy shooting films and dramas both in and out of Korea, which inevitably caused them to grow apart. Excessive media scrutiny of their relationship put extra strain on them, and rumors of their split were a source of great stress. They did not have enough time to overcome these obstacles and the distance between them grew.” With rumors of their separation circulating since the end of 2010, the agencies said the two split up in early 2011 but wanted to keep it secret for the time being “because neither of them wanted the public attention to be directed on their split instead of their professional work. Hyun also did not want a personal issue to interfere with his last days with his fans before starting his military service.”[12][13][14]

[edit] Filmography

[edit] TV series

Year Title Role
2003 Bodyguard (KBS2)
Nonstop 4 (MBC) Hyun Bin
2004 Ireland (MBC) Kang Gook
2005 My Name is Kim Sam Soon (MBC) Hyun Jin-hun
2006 The Snow Queen (KBS) Han Tae-woong/Han Deuk-gu
2008 The World That They Live In (KBS) Jung Ji-oh
2009 Friend, Our Legend (MBC) Han Dong-soo
2010 Secret Garden (SBS) Kim Joo-won

[edit] Film

Year Title Role
2004 Spin Kick Min-gyu
2005 Daddy Long Legs Hyung-joon
2006 Millionaire’s First Love Kang Jae-kyung
2008 I’m Happy Man-soo
2010 Late Autumn Hoon
2011 Come Rain Come Shine He

[edit] Music video

Year Song Artist
2003 “내탓이죠” Herb 허브
2005 “Memory” Kim Bum Soo
2006 “Hey U” Lemon Tree

[edit] Discography

Year Track Album
2010 Dream in My Heart Dream in My Heart
2011 Can’t Have You Friend, Our Legend OST
That Man Secret Garden OST

[edit] Awards

Year Event Category Nominated work Result Ref
2005 MBC Drama Awards Top Excellence My Name is Kim Sam Soon Won
Popularity Award Won
Best Couple with Kim Sun Ah Won
2006 42nd Paeksang Arts Awards Most Popular (TV) Won [15]
KBS Drama Awards Popularity Award Snow Queen Won
Netizen Award Won
Best Couple with Sung Yu Ri Won
2010 SBS Drama Awards Top Excellence Award, Actor – Drama Special Secret Garden Won
Netizen Popularity Award Won
Top Ten Stars Award Won
Best Couple with Ha Ji Won Won
2011 47th Paeksang Arts Awards Grand Prize award for TV Won [16]

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{December 23, 2011}  


Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Artikel ini bukan mengenai abjad atau aksara.

A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, oleh William Caslon, dari Cyclopaedia 1728.

Huruf adalah sebuah grafem dari suatu sistem tulisan, misalnya alfabet Yunani dan aksara yang diturunkannya. Dalam suatu huruf terkandung suatu fonem, dan fonem tersebut membentuk suatu bunyi dari bahasa yang dituturkannya. Setiap aksara memiliki huruf dengan nilai bunyi yang berbeda-beda. Dalam aksara jenis alfabet, abjad, dan abugida, biasanya suatu huruf melambangkan suatu fonem atau bunyi. Berbeda dengan logogram atau ideogram, yang hurufnya mewakili ungkapan atau makna suatu lambang, misalnya aksara Tionghoa. Dalam aksara jenis silabis atau aksara suku kata, suatu huruf melambangkan suatu suku kata, contohnya adalah Hiragana dan Katakana yang digunakan di Jepang.

Beberapa aksara, misalnya alfabet Yunani dan keturunannya, memiliki varian dari satu huruf yang sama, disebut dengan istilah huruf besar dan huruf kecil. Huruf besar biasanya dipakai di awal kata, sedangkan huruf kecil ditulis setelahnya.

[sunting] Pilihan huruf

Di dunia huruf terdapat dua kategori besar pilihan, yakni serif / huruf berkait dan sans-serif / rupa huruf tanpa kait. Serif adalah penamaan untuk kaki dekoratif kecil yang ada di bagian ujung huruf. Jenis huruf serif memiliki basis dasar yang lebih kuat dengan “kaki” yang dimilikinya. Bentuk ini membantu mata pembaca dalam melakukan penelusuran secara horizontal di sepanjang garis tulisan. Sans serif seringkali lebih mudah dibaca secara online (tampilan di layar komputer), meskipun hal ini masih tergantung pada ukuran, gaya dan pilihan warna huruf.

[sunting] Rujukan

  • Daniels, Peter T (eds 1996). The World’s Writing Systems. ISBN0-19-507993-0.
  • Powell, Barry B (1991). Homer and the Origin of the Greek Alphabet. ISBN9780521589079.
  • Robinson A. 2003, “The Origins of writing” in David Crowely and Paul Heyer ‘Communication in History: Technology, Culture, Society’ (fourth edition) Allyn and Bacon Boston pp 34–40

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Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Artikel ini membahas ‘bilangan’ sebagai suatu konsep dalam matematika. Pengertian-pengertian lain dari ‘bilangan’ dapat dilihat pada Bilangan (disambiguasi).

Bilangan adalah suatu konsep matematika yang digunakan untuk pencacahan dan pengukuran. Simbol ataupun lambang yang digunakan untuk mewakili suatu bilangan disebut sebagai angka atau lambang bilangan. Dalam matematika, konsep bilangan selama bertahun-tahun lamanya telah diperluas untuk meliputi bilangan nol, bilangan negatif, bilangan rasional, bilangan irasional, dan bilangan kompleks.

Prosedur-prosedur tertentu yang mengambil bilangan sebagai masukan dan menghasil bilangan lainnya sebagai keluran, disebut sebagai operasi numeris. Operasi uner mengambil satu masukan bilangan dan menghasilkan satu keluaran bilangan. Operasi yang lebih umumnya ditemukan adalah operasi biner, yang mengambil dua bilangan sebagai masukan dan menghasilkan satu bilangan sebagai keluaran. Contoh operasi biner adalah penjumlahan, pengurangan, perkalian, pembagian, dan perpangkatan. Bidang matematika yang mengkaji operasi numeris disebut sebagai aritmetika.

Daftar isi


[sunting] Angka, bilangan, dan nomor

Dalam penggunaan sehari-hari, angka dan bilangan dan nomor seringkali disamakan. Secara definisi, angka, bilangan, dan nomor merupakan tiga entitas yang berbeda.

Angka adalah suatu tanda atau lambang yang digunakan untuk melambangkan bilangan. Contohnya, bilangan lima dapat dilambangkan menggunakan angka Hindu-Arab “5” (sistem angka berbasis 10), “101” (sistem angka biner), maupun menggunakan angka Romawi ‘V’. Lambang “5”, “1”, “0”, dan “V” yang digunakan untuk melambangkan bilangan lima disebut sebagai angka.

Nomor biasanya menunjuk pada satu atau lebih angka yang melambangkan sebuah bilangan bulat dalam suatu barisan bilangan-bilangan bulat yang berurutan. Misalnya kata ‘nomor 3’ menunjuk salah satu posisi urutan dalam barisan bilangan-bilangan 1, 2, 3, 4, …, dst. Kata “nomor” sangat erat terkait dengan pengertian urutan.

[sunting] Jenis bilangan-bilangan Sederhana

Ada berbagai jenis bilangan. Bilangan-bilangan yang paling dikenal adalah bilangan bulat 0, 1, -1, 2, -2, … dan bilangan-bilangan asli 1, 2, 3, …, keduanya sering digunakan untuk berhitung dalam aritmatika. Himpunan semua bilangan bulat dalam buku-buku teks aljabar biasanya dinyatakan dengan lambang Z dan sedangkan himpunan semua bilangan asli biasanya dinyatakan dengan lambang N.

Setiap bentuk rasio p/q antara dua bilangan bulat p dan bilangan bulat tak nol q disebut bilangan rasional atau pecahan. Himpunan semua bilangan rasional ditandai dengan Q.

[sunting] Konsep Hingga Terhitung dan Tak Terhitung

Unsur-unsur ketiga himpunan N, Z dan Q di atas masih bisa ‘diurutkan’ (enumerated) tanpa ada satu pun yg tersisa atau tercecer. Himpunan berukuran tak hingga yg bisa diurutkan ini disebut himpunan terhitung (Inggris: countable atau denumerable).

Himpunan semua bilangan alami (real numbers), yaitu semua bilangan rasional digabung dengan semua bilangan tak rasional (atau irasional), dinyatakan dengan lambang R. Himpunan ini selain berukuran tak hingga, juga himpunan tak terhitung sebab bisa dibuktikan secara matematis, setiap usaha untuk mengurutkannya selalu gagal, karena menyisakan bilangan alami.

Silakan baca untuk contoh pembuktian di atas. Fakta ini menjadi titik awal untuk membedakan dua konsep tak hingga dalam matematika: tak hingga terhitung dan tak hingga tak terhitung.

Untuk contoh bagaimana matematikawan mendefinisikan bilangan melalui berbagai aksioma, lihat struktur abstrak, bilangan asli atau universal.

[sunting] Benda apakah sebuah bilangan itu?

Setiap bilangan, misalnya bilangan yang dilambangkan dengan angka 1, sesungguhnya adalah konsep abstrak yang tak bisa tertangkap oleh indera manusia, tetapi bersifat universal. Misalnya, tulisan atau ketikan

1yang terlihat di layar monitor dan Anda baca saat ini bukanlah bilangan 1, melainkan hanya lambang dari bilangan 1 yang tertangkap oleh indera penglihatan Anda berkat keberadaan unsur-unsur kimia yang peka cahaya dan digunakan untuk menampilkan warna dan gambar di layar monitor.

Demikian pula jika Anda melihat lambang yang sama di papan tulis, yang Anda lihat bukanlah bilangan 1, melainkan serbuk dari kapur tulis yang melambangkan bilangan 1.

Teori bilangan pada saat ini jauh lebih kompleks daripada sekedar aritmatika dan aplikasinya lebih banyak pada berbagai ilmu dan teknologi mutakhir, misalnya pada kriptografi. Silakan Anda dapat membaca contoh isi mata kuliah teori bilangan dalam link ini : Perlu diketahui, masalah dalam teori bilangan yang dikenal dengan Teorema Terakhir Fermat baru bisa dipecahkan setelah berumur ratusan tahun.

Konsep bilangan-bilangan yang lebih umum dan lebih luas memerlukan pembahasan lebih jauh, bahkan kadang-kadang memerlukan kedalaman matematis dan logika untuk bisa memahami dan mendefinisikannya. Misalnya dalam teori matematika, himpunan semua bilangan rasional bisa dibangun secara bertahap, diawali dari himpunan bilangan-bilangan asli.

[sunting] Pranala Luar

[sunting] Lihat pula

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{December 23, 2011}  


Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
Untuk kegunaan lain dari Warna, lihat Warna (disambiguasi).

Warna-warna utama

Warna adalah spektrum tertentu yang terdapat di dalam suatu cahaya sempurna (berwarna putih). Identitas suatu warna ditentukan panjang gelombang cahaya tersebut. Sebagai contoh warna biru memiliki panjang gelombang 460 nanometer.

Panjang gelombang warna yang masih bisa ditangkap mata manusia berkisar antara 380-780 nanometer.

Dalam peralatan optis, warna bisa pula berarti interpretasi otak terhadap campuran tiga warna primer cahaya: merah, hijau, biru yang digabungkan dalam komposisi tertentu. Misalnya pencampuran 100% merah, 0% hijau, dan 100% biru akan menghasilkan interpretasi warna magenta.

Dalam seni rupa, warna bisa berarti pantulan tertentu dari cahaya yang dipengaruhi oleh pigmen yang terdapat di permukaan benda. Misalnya pencampuran pigmen magenta dan cyan dengan proporsi tepat dan disinari cahaya putih sempurna akan menghasilkan sensasi mirip warna merah.

Setiap warna mampu memberikan kesan dan identitas tertentu sesuai kondisi sosial pengamatnya. Misalnya warna putih akan memberi kesan suci dan dingin di daerah Barat karena berasosiasi dengan salju. Sementara di kebanyakan negara Timur warna putih memberi kesan kematian dan sangat menakutkan karena berasosiasi dengan kain kafan (meskipun secara teoritis sebenarnya putih bukanlah warna).

Di dalam ilmu warna, hitam dianggap sebagai ketidakhadiran seluruh jenis gelombang warna. Sementara putih dianggap sebagai representasi kehadiran seluruh gelombang warna dengan proporsi seimbang. Secara ilmiah, keduanya bukanlah warna, meskipun bisa dihadirkan dalam bentuk pigmen.

Daftar isi


[sunting] Pengelompokan

  1. Warna netral, adalah warna-warna yang tidak lagi memiliki kemurnian warna atau dengan kata lain bukan merupakan warna primer maupun sekunder. Warna ini merupakan campuran ketiga komponen warna sekaligus, tetapi tidak dalam komposisi tepat sama.
  2. Warna kontras atau komplementer, adalah warna yang berkesan berlawanan satu dengan lainnya. Warna kontras bisa didapatkan dari warna yang berseberangan (memotong titik tengah segitiga) terdiri atas warna primer dan warna sekunder. Tetapi tidak menutup kemungkinan pula membentuk kontras warna dengan menolah nilai ataupun kemurnian warna. Contoh warna kontras adalah merah dengan hijau, kuning dengan ungu dan biru dengan jingga.
  3. Warna panas, adalah kelompok warna dalam rentang setengah lingkaran di dalam lingkaran warna mulai dari merah hingga kuning. Warna ini menjadi simbol, riang, semangat, marah dsb. Warna panas mengesankan jarak yang dekat.
  4. Warna dingin, adalah kelompok warna dalam rentang setengah lingkaran di dalam lingkaran warna mulai dari hijau hingga ungu. Warna ini menjadi simbol kelembutan, sejuk, nyaman dsb. Warna dingin mengesankan jarak yang jauh.

[sunting] Istilah lain

  • Nilai warna, ditentukan oleh tingkat kecerahan maupun kesuraman warna. Nilai ini dipengaruhi oleh penambahan putih ataupun hitam. Di dalam sistem RGB, nilai ini ditentukan oleh penambahan komponen merah, biru, dan hijau dalam komposisi yang tepat sama walaupun tidak harus penuh seratus persen.

[sunting] Nama-nama warna

[sunting] Warna dasar

  • Fractal Broccoli
  • Amarillo
  • Aureolin
  • Cadmium yellow
  • Cadmium yellow light
  • Hanza yello
  • Hanza yellow light
  • Naples yellow
  • Nickeltintate
  • Yellow ironoxide
  • Yellow ochre
  • Sulphur crystal
  • Sulpherous Fumeroles
  • Cube Animation.gif

[sunting] Warna kombinasi

Emission spectrum-Fe.png
  • Solid gray
  • Sunset at French Riviera
  • Aster
  • Violettöne eines Fußbettes.

  • 1940 Ford automobile.

  • * ”Magenta”
  • MagentasRVB Pantone CMJN.jpg


  • Crimson
  • Crimson sunset
  • Dunkelrotes Haus Balanstr.JPG
  • Maroon
  • Marron 1300x1300.jpg

[sunting] Warna harmonis

▓▓▓▓▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ ▓ █ ▓ ▒ ░

[sunting] Galeri

  • Coklat, jingga, kuning dan merah
  • Biru, coklat, merah, hijau, biru dan shades
  • Merah, putih, hitam, hijau dan shades
  • Hitam dan merah
  • Hijau dan merah
  • Perak, kuning, coklat, perak, hitam, ochre, jingga, dark red, crimson, abu-abu dan biru
  • Jingga, putih, hijau, biru dan merah
  • Jingga, coklat, merah, hijau, kuning dan shades
  • Buntstifte.

  • Farbige streifen.

  • Bbues en musac.jpg
  • Farb-Check-RGB.png

[sunting] Lihat pula

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{December 23, 2011}  


Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Bohong adalah pernyataan yang salah dibuat oleh seseorang dengan tujuan pendengar percaya. Fiksi meskipun salah, tetapi bukan bohong. Orang yang berbicara bohong dan terutama orang yang mempunyai kebiasaan berbohong disebut pembohong.

Garis antara kebohongan dan kebenaran sangatlah tipis. Sebuah contoh: jika seorang tetangga saya menyatakan bahwa ia merupakan keturunan Tsar Rusia; Nikolai II, maka bisa dikatakan ia berbohong. Kebohongannya bisa dibuktikan dengan sebuah penelitian DNA, dan selain itu kita semua tahu bahwa Tsar Nikolai II beserta keluarganya sudah dibantai habis oleh kaum komunis. Namun jika ia berkata bahwa ia masih keturunan Rusia, mungkin saja ia benar. Siapa tahu nenek moyangnya memang benar ada yang berasal dari Rusia.

Pada sebuah kebohongan ada pula unsur kesengajaan. Jika seseorang berkata bahwa ia merupakan seorang profesor padahal bukan, maka ia sengaja melakukannya untuk pamer. Hal ini merupakan sebuah kebohongan. Namun jika seorang anggota CIA berkata bahwa Osama bin Laden menurut data-datanya berada di Pakistan, padahal tidak, maka ini namanya kesalahan dan bukan kebohongan. Kecuali ia melakukannya dengan sengaja sebagai sebuah siasat, maka namanya adalah taktik disinformasi.

[sunting] Lihat pula

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{December 23, 2011}  


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Happiness (disambiguation).
“Happy” and “Jolly” redirect here. For other uses, see Happy (disambiguation) and Jolly (disambiguation).
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The smiley face is a well-known symbol of happiness

Happiness is a mental state of well-being characterized by positive emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy.[1] A variety of biological, psychological, religious, and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its sources.

Various research groups, including Positive psychology, endeavor to apply the scientific method to answer questions about what “happiness” is, and how we might attain it.

Philosophers and religious thinkers often define happiness in terms of living a good life, or flourishing, rather than simply as an emotion. Happiness in this older sense was used to translate the Greek Eudaimonia, and is still used in virtue ethics.

Happiness economics suggests that measures of public happiness should be used to supplement more traditional economic measures when evaluating the success of public policy.



Scientific views

See also: Positive psychology

Martin Seligman asserts that happiness is not just external, momentary pleasures.[2] Flow (engagement) and general life satisfaction are parts of happiness too, for example.

Hotei, god of happiness in East Asian folklore

A smiling 95-year-old man from Pichilemu, Chile.

Happiness is a fuzzy concept and can mean many things to many people. Part of the challenge of a science of happiness is to identify different concepts of happiness, and where applicable, split them into their components.

In the 2nd Edition of the Handbook of Emotions (2000), evolutionary psychologists Leda Cosmides and John Tooby say that happiness comes from “encountering unexpected positive events”. In the 3rd Edition of the Handbook of Emotions (2008), Michael Lewis says “happiness can be elicited by seeing a significant other”. According to Mark Leary, as reported in a November 1995 issue of Psychology Today, “we are happiest when basking in the acceptance and praise of others”. In a March 2009 edition of The Journal of Positive Psychology, Sara Algoe and Jonathan Haidt say that “happiness” may be the label for a family of related emotional states, such as joy, amusement, satisfaction, gratification, euphoria, and triumph.

According to a review in on August 23, 2009, money doesn’t buy much happiness unless it’s used in certain ways. “Beyond the point at which people have enough to comfortably feed, clothe, and house themselves, having more money – even a lot more money – makes them only a little bit happier.” However we can sometimes get more happiness bang for our buck by spending it in prosocial ways. A Harvard Business School study found that “spending money on others actually makes us happier than spending it on ourselves”.

There are various factors that have been correlated with happiness,[3] but no validated method has been found to improve happiness in a meaningful way for most people.

Psychologist Martin Seligman provides the acronym PERMA to summarize Positive Psychology’s correlational findings: humans seem happiest when they have

  1. Pleasure (tasty foods, warm baths, etc.),
  2. Engagement (or flow, the absorption of an enjoyed yet challenging activity),
  3. Relationships (social ties have turned out to be extremely reliable indicator of happiness),
  4. Meaning (a perceived quest or belonging to something bigger), and
  5. Accomplishments (having realized tangible goals).

There have also been some studies of how religion relates to happiness. Causal relationships remain unclear, but more religion is seen in happier people. This correlation may be the result of community membership and not necessarily belief in religion itself. Another component may have to do with ritual, according to a 2009 article in Frontiers in Evolutionary Neuroscience.

Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908–June 8, 1970), an American professor of psychology, founded humanistic psychology. A visual aid he created to explain his theory, which he called the hierarchy of needs, is a pyramid depicting the levels of human needs, psychological, and physical. When a human being ascends the steps of the pyramid, he reaches self-actualization. Beyond the routine of needs fulfillment, Maslow envisioned moments of extraordinary experience, known as peak experiences, profound moments of love, understanding, happiness, or rapture, during which a person feels more whole, alive, self-sufficient, and yet a part of the world.

Religious perspectives

See also: Religion and happiness


Happiness forms a central theme of Buddhist teachings[dubiousdiscuss]. For ultimate freedom from suffering, the Noble Eightfold Path leads its practitioner to Nirvana, a state of everlasting peace. Ultimate happiness is only achieved by overcoming craving in all forms. More mundane forms of happiness, such as acquiring wealth and maintaining good friendships, are also recognized as worthy goals for lay people (see sukha). Buddhism also encourages the generation of loving kindness and compassion, the desire for the happiness and welfare of all beings.[4][5][unreliable source?]


In Catholicism, the ultimate end of human existence consists in felicity (Latin equivalent to the Greek eudaimonia), or “blessed happiness”, described by the 13th-century philosopher-theologian Thomas Aquinas as a Beatific Vision of God’s essence in the next life.[6]

Philosophical views

Main article: Philosophy of happiness

The Chinese Confucian thinker Mencius, who 2300 years ago sought to give advice to the ruthless political leaders of the warring states period, was convinced that the mind played a mediating role between the “lesser self” (the physiological self) and the “greater self” (the moral self) and that getting the priorities right between these two would lead to sage-hood. He argued that if we did not feel satisfaction or pleasure in nourishing one’s “vital force” with “righteous deeds”, that force would shrivel up (Mencius,6A:15 2A:2). More specifically, he mentions the experience of intoxicating joy if one celebrates the practice of the great virtues, especially through music.[7]

Al-Ghazali (1058–1111) the Muslim Sufi thinker wrote the Alchemy of Happiness, a manual of spiritual instruction throughout the Muslim world and widely practiced today.

The Hindu thinker Patanjali, author of the Yoga Sutras, wrote quite exhaustively on the psychological and ontological roots of bliss.[8]

In the Nicomachean Ethics, written in 350 BCE, Aristotle stated that happiness (also being well and doing well) is the only thing that humans desire for its own sake, unlike riches, honor, health or friendship. He observed that men sought riches, or honor, or health not only for their own sake but also in order to be happy. Note that eudaimonia, the term we translate as “happiness”, is for Aristotle an activity rather than an emotion or a state.[9] Happiness is characteristic of a good life, that is, a life in which a person fulfills human nature in an excellent way. People have a set of purposes which are typically human: these belong to our nature. The happy person is virtuous, meaning they have outstanding abilities and emotional tendencies which allow him or her to fulfill our common human ends. For Aristotle, then, happiness is “the virtuous activity of the soul in accordance with reason”: happiness is the practice of virtue.

Many ethicists make arguments for how humans should behave, either individually or collectively, based on the resulting happiness of such behavior. Utilitarians, such as John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, advocated the greatest happiness principle as a guide for ethical behavior.

Economic views

Newly commissioned officers celebrate their new positions by throwing their midshipmen covers into the air as part of the U.S. Naval Academy class of 2005 graduation and commissioning ceremony.

Main article: Happiness economics

Common market health measures such as GDP and GNP have been used as a measure of successful policy. On average richer nations tend to be happier than poorer nations, but this effect seems to diminish with wealth.[10][11] This has been explained by the fact that the dependency is not linear but logarithmic, i.e., the same percentual increase in the GNP produces the same increase in happiness for wealthy countries as for poor countries.[12][13][14][15]

Economic freedom correlates strongly with happiness[16] preferably within the context of a western mixed economy, with free press and a democracy. “Socialist” East European countries were less happy than Western ones, even less happy than other equally poor countries.[17] It would be inaccurate to consider the ex-Soviet states as socialist, however, as socialism indicates that the workers own the means of production, which under the Soviet Union was not the case.[18]

It has been argued that happiness measures could be used not as a replacement for more traditional measures, but as a supplement.[19] According to professor Edward Glaeser, people constantly make choices that decrease their happiness, because they have also more important aims. Therefore, the government should not decrease the alternatives available for the citizen by patronizing them but let the citizen keep a maximal freedom of choice.[20]

It has been argued that happiness at work is one of the driving forces behind positive outcomes at work, rather than just being a resultant product.[21]

Commonplace in France, happiness is related with wine usage. In summer time rosé wine is favoured for its lightness (i.e. not tannic character) and festiveness whereas champagne is more associated with winter time and the Christmas time.

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Happiness

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{December 23, 2011}  


Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Komet adalah salah satu anggota dari keluarga sistem tata surya


Komet adalah benda langit yang mengelilingi matahari dengan garis edar berbentuk lonjong atau parabolis atau hiperbolis.[1]

Kata “komet” berasal dari bahasa Yunani, yang berarti “rambut panjang”.[2] Istilah lainnya adalah bintang berekor[3] yang tidak tidak tepat karena komet sama sekali bukan bintang[3]. Orang Jawa menyebutnya sebagai lintang kemukus karena memiliki ekor seperti buah kemukus yang telah dikeringkan.

Komet terbentuk dari es dan debu.[4] Komet terdiri dari kumpulan debu dan gas yang membeku pada saat berada jauh dari matahari.[1] Ketika mendekati matahari, sebagian bahan penyusun komet menguap membentuk kepala gas dan ekor.[4] Komet juga mengelilingi matahari, sehingga termasuk dalam sistem tata surya.[5] Komet merupakan gas pijar dengan garis edar yang berbeda-beda.[5] Panjang “ekor” komet dapat mencapai jutaan km.[2] Beberapa komet menempuh jarak lebih jauh di luar angkasa daripada planet.[6] Beberapa komet membutuhkan ribuan tahun untuk menyelesaikan satu kali mengorbit matahari.[6]

Komet mengorbit matahari dalam suatu lintasan yang berbentuk elips

Daftar isi


[sunting] Bagian-Bagian Komet

Bagian-bagian komet terdiri dari inti, koma, awan hidrogen, dan ekor.[7] Bagian-bagian komet sebagai berikut.[8]

Inti komet adalah sebongkah batu dan salju.[9] Ekor komet arahnya selalu menjauh dari matahari.[7] Bagian ekor suatu komet terdiri dari dua macam, yaitu ekor debu dan ekor gas.[10] Bentuk ekor debu tampak berbentuk lengkungan, sedangkan ekor gas berbentuk lurus.[10] Koma atau ekor komet tercipta saat mendekati matahari yaitu ketika sebagian inti meleleh menjadi gas.[11] Angin matahari kemudian meniup gas tersebut sehingga menyerupai asap yang mengepul ke arah belakang kepala komet.[11] Ekor inilah yang terlihat bersinar dari bumi.[11] Sebuah komet kadang mempunyai satu ekor dan ada yang dua atau lebih.[10]

[sunting] Jenis-Jenis Komet

Berdasarkan bentuk dan panjang lintasannya, komet dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi dua, yaitu sebagai berikut.[12]

  • Komet berekor panjang, yaitu komet dengan garis lintasannya sangat jauh melalui daerah-daerah yang sangat dingin di angkasa sehingga berkesempatan menyerap gas-gas daerah yang dilaluinya. Ketika mendekati matahari, komet tersebut melepaskan gas sehingga membentuk koma dan ekor yang sangat panjang. Contohnya, komet Kohoutek yang melintas dekat matahari setiap 75.000 tahun sekali dan komet Halley setiap 76 tahun sekali.
  • Komet berekor pendek, yaitu komet dengan garis lintasannya sangat pendek sehingga kurang memiliki kesempatan untuk menyerap gas di daerah yang dilaluinya. Ketika mendekati matahari, komet tersebut melepaskan gas yang sangat sedikit sehingga hanya membentuk koma dan ekor yang sangat pendek bahkan hampir tidak berekor. Contohnya komet Encke yang melintas mendekati matahari setiap 3,3 tahun sekali.

[sunting] Nama-nama Komet

Sekarang telah dikenal banyak nama komet, antara lain sebagai berikut.[13]

  • Komet Kohoutek.
  • Komet Arend-Roland dan Maikos yang muncul pada tahun 1957.
  • Komet Ikeya-Seki, ditemukan pada bulan September 1965 oleh dua astronom Jepang, yaitu Ikeya dan T. Seki.
  • Komet Shoemaker-Levy 9 yang hancur pada tahun 1994.
  • Komet Hyakutake yang muncul pada tahun 1996.
  • Komet Hale-bopp yang muncul pada tahun 1997 dan lainnya.
  • Komet Lovejoy

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{December 23, 2011}  


Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Meridian Utama di Greenwich, Inggris

Dalam geografi, meridian adalah sebuah garis khayal pada permukaan bumi, tempat kedudukan titik-titik dengan bujur yang sama, menghubungkan kutub utara dan kutub selatan. Dengan demikian setiap titik di permukaan bumi memiliki meridiannya sendiri-sendiri. Sebuah titik di suatu meridian ditentukan posisinya oleh lintang. Setiap meridian selalu tegak lurus dengan lingkaran lintang. Tiap-tiap meridian memiliki panjang yang sama, yaitu setengah dari lingkaran besar bola bumi.

Meridian yang melewati instrumen fundamental (lingkaran transit) yang ada di Observatorium Greenwich, Inggris, berdasarkan persetujuan internasional dianggap sebagai Meridian Utama atau Meridian Standar. Meridian ini memiliki arti bujur nol derajat. Meridian lainnya diidentifikasi dengan sebuah sudut yang dibentuk oleh perpotongan antara bidang meridian tersebut dan bidang Meridian Utama. Meridian pada sisi bumi yang berlawanan dengan Greenwich (yang merupakan setengah lingkaran lain dari sebuah lingkaran yang melewati Greenwich) adalah bujur 180°. Meridian lainnya terletak antara 0° dan 180° bujur barat di hemisfer barat (barat Greenwich) dan antara 0° dan 180° bujur timur di hemisfer timur (timur Greenwich).

Istilah “meridian” berasal dari bahasa Latin, meridies, yang berarti “tengah hari” (atau “midday” dalam bahasa Inggris); Matahari melintasi titik di atas suatu meridian yang merupakan titik setengah jalan lintasannya antara saat terbit dan tenggelam. Akar kata Latin yang sama digunakan juga untuk menyebut istilah A.M. dan P.M. yaitu suatu pernyataan waktu untuk memisahkan jam-jam dalam satu hari ketika dinyatakan dalam sistem 12 jam.

[sunting] Lihat pula

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