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Supermarket

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This article is about the type of food store. For the 2006 comic Supermarket, see Supermarket (comics). For the album, see Supermarket (album).
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The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. (October 2010)

Produce section of a Grupo Pão de Açúcar supermarket in São Paulo

Packaged food aisles in a Fred Meyer store in Portland, Oregon

A supermarket, a form of grocery store, is a self-service store offering a wide variety of food and household merchandise, organized into departments. It is larger in size and has a wider selection than a traditional grocery store, also selling items typically found in a convenience store, but is smaller and more limited in the range of merchandise than a hypermarket or big-box store.

The supermarket typically comprises meat, fresh produce, dairy, and baked goods departments, along with shelf space reserved for canned and packaged goods as well as for various non-food items such as household cleaners, pharmacy products and pet supplies. Most supermarkets also sell a variety of other household products that are consumed regularly, such as alcohol (where permitted), medicine, and clothes, and some stores sell a much wider range of non-food products.

The traditional suburban supermarket occupies a large amount of floor space, usually on a single level. It is usually situated near a residential area in order to be convenient to consumers. Its basic appeal is the availability of a broad selection of goods under a single roof, at relatively low prices. Other advantages include ease of parking and frequently the convenience of shopping hours that extend far into the evening or even 24 hours a day. Supermarkets usually allocate large budgets to advertising, typically through newspapers. They also present elaborate in-store displays of products. The stores are usually part of corporate chains that own or control (sometimes by franchise) other supermarkets located nearby—even transnationally—thus increasing opportunities for economies of scale.

Supermarkets typically are supplied by the distribution centres of their parent companies, usually in the largest city in the province.

Supermarkets usually offer products at low prices by reducing their economic margins. Certain products (typically staple foods such as bread, milk and sugar) are occasionally sold as loss leaders, that is, with negative profit margins. To maintain a profit, supermarkets attempt to make up for the lower margins by a higher overall volume of sales, and with the sale of higher-margin items. Customers usually shop by placing their selected merchandise into shopping carts (trolleys) or baskets (self-service) and pay for the merchandise at the check-out. At present, many supermarket chains are attempting to further reduce labor costs by shifting to self-service check-out machines, where a single employee can oversee a group of four or five machines at once, assisting multiple customers at a time.

A larger full-service supermarket combined with a department store is sometimes known as a hypermarket. Other services offered at some supermarkets may include those of banks, cafés, childcare centres/creches, photo processing, video rentals, pharmacies and/or petrol stations.

Contents

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[edit] History

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010)

A supermarket in Sweden in 1941

Cashiers and check-out area of supermarket in a United States Army community in 1945

In the early days of retailing, all products generally were fetched by an assistant from shelves behind the merchant’s counter while customers waited in front of the counter and indicated the items they wanted. Also, most foods and merchandise did not come in individually wrapped consumer-sized packages, so an assistant had to measure out and wrap the precise amount desired by the consumer. This also offered opportunities for social interaction: many regarded this style of shopping as “a social occasion” and would often “pause for conversations with the staff or other customers.”[1] These practices were by nature very labor-intensive and therefore also quite expensive. The shopping process was slow, as the number of customers who could be attended to at one time was limited by the number of staff employed in the store.

The concept of a self-service grocery store was developed by American entrepreneur Clarence Saunders and his Piggly Wiggly stores. His first store opened in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1916. Saunders was awarded a number of patents for the ideas he incorporated into his stores.[2][3][4][5] The stores were a financial success and Saunders began to offer franchises. The Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company (A&P) was another successful early grocery store chain in Canada and the United States, and became common in North American cities in the 1920s. The general trend in retail since then has been to stock shelves at night so that customers, the following day, can obtain their own goods and bring them to the front of the store to pay for them. Although there is a higher risk of shoplifting, the costs of appropriate security measures ideally will be outweighed by reduced labor costs.[citation needed]

Early self-service grocery stores did not sell fresh meats or produce. Combination stores that sold perishable items were developed in the 1920s.[6]

Historically, there was debate about the origin of the supermarket, with King Kullen and Ralph’s of California having strong claims.[7] Other contenders included Weingarten’s Big Food Markets and Henke & Pillot.[8] To end the debate, the Food Marketing Institute in conjunction with the Smithsonian Institution and with funding from H.J. Heinz, researched the issue. It defined the attributes of a supermarket as “self-service, separate product departments, discount pricing, marketing and volume selling.”[citation needed]

It has been determined that the first true supermarket in the United States was opened by a former Kroger employee, Michael J. Cullen, on August 4, 1930, inside a 6,000-square-foot (560 m2) former garage in Jamaica, Queens in New York City.[9] The store, King Kullen, (inspired by the fictional character King Kong), operated under the slogan “Pile it high. Sell it low.” At the time of Cullen’s death in 1936, there were seventeen King Kullen stores in operation. Although Saunders had brought the world self-service, uniform stores and nationwide marketing, Cullen built on this idea by adding separate food departments, selling large volumes of food at discount prices and adding a parking lot.

A Safeway advertisement from the 1950s.

Other established American grocery chains in the 1930s, such as Kroger and Safeway at first resisted Cullen’s idea, but eventually were forced to build their own supermarkets as the economy sank into the Great Depression, while consumers were becoming price-sensitive at a level never experienced before.[10] Kroger took the idea one step further and pioneered the first supermarket surrounded on all four sides by a parking lot.[citation needed]

Supermarkets proliferated across Canada and the United States with the growth of automobile ownership and suburban development after World War II. Most North American supermarkets are located in suburban strip malls as an anchor store along with other smaller retailers. They are generally regional rather than national in their company branding. Kroger is perhaps the most nationally oriented supermarket chain in the United States but it has preserved most of its regional brands, including Ralphs, City Market and King Soopers.[citation needed]

In Canada, the largest such chain is Loblaw, which operates stores under a variety of regional names, including Fortinos, Zehrs and the largest, Loblaws, (named after the company itself). Sobeys is Canada’s second largest supermarket with locations across the country, operating under many banners (Sobeys IGA in Quebec).[citation needed] Québec’s first supermarket opened in 1934 in Montréal, under the banner Steinberg’s.[11]

In the United Kingdom, self-service shopping took longer to become established. Even in 1947, there were just ten self-service shops in the country.[1] In 1951, ex-US Navy sailor Patrick Galvani, son-in-law of Express Dairies chairman, made a pitch to the board to open a chain of supermarkets across the country. The UK’s first supermarket under the new Premier Supermarkets brand opened in Streatham, South London,[12] taking ten times as much per week as the average British general store of the time. Other chains caught on, and after Galvani lost out to Tesco’s Jack Cohen in 1960 to buy the 212 Irwin’s chain, the sector underwent a large amount of consolidation, resulting in ‘the big four’ dominant UK retailers of today: Tesco, Asda (owned by Wal-Mart), Sainsbury’s and Morrisons.

In the 1950s, supermarkets frequently issued trading stamps as incentives to customers. Today, most chains issue store-specific “membership cards,” “club cards,” or “loyalty cards“. These typically enable the card holder to receive special members-only discounts on certain items when the credit card-like device is scanned at check-out.[citation needed]

Traditional supermarkets in many countries face intense competition from discount retailers such as Wal-Mart, Tesco in the UK, and Zellers in Canada, which typically are non-union and operate with better buying power. Other competition exists from warehouse clubs such as Costco that offer savings to customers buying in bulk quantities. Superstores, such as those operated by Wal-Mart and Asda, often offer a wide range of goods and services in addition to foods. The proliferation of such warehouse and superstores has contributed to the continuing disappearance of smaller, local grocery stores; increased dependence on the automobile; suburban sprawl because of the necessity for large floorspace and increased vehicular traffic. Some critics consider the chains’ common practice of selling loss leaders to be anti-competitive. They are also wary of the negotiating power that large, often multinational retailers have with suppliers around the world.[citation needed]

[edit] Growth in developing countries

There has been a rapid transformation of the food retail sector in developing countries, beginning in the 1990s. This applies particularly to Latin America, South-East Asia, China and South Africa. However, growth is being witnessed in nearly all countries. With growth, has come considerable competition and some amount of consolidation.[13] The growth has been driven by increasing affluence and the rise of a middle class; the entry of women into the workforce; with a consequent incentive to seek out easy-to-prepare foods; the growth in the use of refrigerators, making it possible to shop weekly instead of daily; and the growth in car ownership, facilitating journeys to distant stores and purchases of large quantities of goods. The opportunities presented by this potential have encouraged several European companies to invest in these markets (mainly in Asia) and American companies to invest in Latin America and China. Local companies also entered the market.[14] Initial development of supermarkets has now been followed by hypermarket growth. In addition there were investments by companies such as Makro and Metro in large-scale Cash-and-Carry operations.

While the growth in sales of processed foods in these countries has been much more rapid than the growth in fresh food sales, the imperative nature of supermarkets to achieve economies of scale in purchasing, means that the expansion of supermarkets in these countries has important repercussions for small farmers, particularly those growing perishable crops. New supply chains have developed involving cluster formation; development of specialized wholesalers; leading farmers organizing supply; and farmer associations or cooperatives.[15] In some cases supermarkets have organized their own procurement from small farmers; in others wholesale markets have adapted to meet supermarket needs.[16]

[edit] Typical supermarket merchandise

Inside an Asda supermarket in Keighley, West Yorkshire.

Sainsbury’s supermarket front end

Fruit on display in a supermarket in Japan.

Inside a Serbian supermarket

Exterior of a supermarket in Kulim, Kedah, Malaysia.

Larger supermarkets in North America and in Europe typically sell a great number of items among many brands, sizes and varieties, including:

In some countries, the range of supermarket merchandise is more strictly focused on food products, although the range of goods for sale is expanding in many locations as typical store sizes continue to increase globally.

[edit] Typical store architecture

A Kroger store, Kroger of the Villages, in Hedwig Village, Texas (Greater Houston)

While branding and store advertising will differ from company to company, the layout of a supermarket remains virtually unchanged. Although big companies spend time giving consumers a pleasant shopping experience, the design of a supermarket is directly connected to the in-store marketing that supermarkets must conduct in order to get shoppers to spend more money while there.

Every facet of the store is mapped out and attention is paid to colour, wording and even surface texture. The overall layout of a supermarket is a visual merchandising project that plays a major role in retailing. Stores can creatively use a layout to alter customers’ perceptions of the atmosphere. Alternatively, they can enhance the store’s atmospherics through visual communications (signs and graphics), lighting, colours, and even scents.[17] For example, to give a sense of the supermarket being healthy, fresh produce is deliberately located at the front of the store. In terms of bakery items, su­permarkets usually dedicate 30 to 40 feet of store space to the bread aisle.[18]

As explained by Dr Paul Harrison, cited in Browne (2010), supermarkets are designed to ‘give each product section a sense of individual difference and this is evident in the design of what are called the anchor departments; fresh produce, dairy, delicatessen, meat and the bakery’.[19] Each of these sections has different floor coverings, style, lighting and sometimes even individual services counters to allow shoppers to feel like there are a number of markets within this one supermarket.[20]

[edit] Criticisms

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2010)
  • Supermarket, in general, tend to narrow the choices of fruits and vegetables by stocking only varieties with long storage lives.
  • Supermarkets can generally retail at lower prices than traditional corner shops and markets due to higher volume throughput. This has led to small businesses losing customers and closing in many areas, which can be seen as an adverse effect on the local infrastructure.[21]
  • In the United States, major-brand supermarkets often demand slotting fees from suppliers in exchange for premium shelf space and/or better positioning (such as at eye-level, on the checkout aisle or at a shelf’s “end cap”). This extra supplier cost (up to $30,000 per brand for a chain for each individual SKU) may be reflected in the cost of the products offered. Some critics have questioned the ethical and legal propriety of slotting fee payments and their effect on smaller suppliers [2] [3] [4].
  • In Britain supermarkets have been accused of squeezing prices to farmers, forcing small shops out of business, and often favouring imports over British produce. [5]
  • In New Zealand, supermarkets have been accused of buying fresh produce from growers at low prices and selling with ridiculously high mark-ups, sometimes as high as 500%[6].

[edit] See also

Portal icon Food portal

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b Hamlett, Jane (April 2008). “Regulating UK supermarkets: an oral-history perspective” (in English). History & Policy. United Kingdom: History & Policy. http://www.historyandpolicy.org/papers/policy-paper-70.html. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  2. ^ CLABENCB SAOTTDEBS, CLABENCB SAOTTDEBS
  3. ^ http://www.google.com/patents?id=dPdNAAAAEBAJ
  4. ^ http://www.google.com/patents?id=HjBBAAAAEBAJ&dq=Clarence+Saunders
  5. ^ http://www.google.com/patents?id=2dd5AAAAEBAJ&dq=Clarence+Saunders
  6. ^ Strasser, Susan Never Done: A History of American Housework Holt Paperbacks, 2000.
  7. ^ http://www.groceteria.com/store/regional-chains/p-t/ralphs/
  8. ^ Supermarket News, 29 August 2005, p10
  9. ^ Anonymous, “The place where supermarketing was born,” Mass Market Retailers 19, no. 9 (17 June 2002): 172.
  10. ^ Ryan Mathews, “1926-1936: entrepreneurs and enterprise: a look at industry pioneers like King Kullen and J. Frank Grimes, and the institution they created (Special Report: Social Change & the Supermarket),” Progressive Grocer 75, no. 12 (December 1996): 39-43.
  11. ^ http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0007691
  12. ^ Helen Gregory (2001-11-03). “It’s a super anniversary: it’s 50 years since the first full size self-service supermarket was unveiled in the UK”. The Grocer. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb5245/is_7528_224/ai_n28873842/. Retrieved 2010-06-30.
  13. ^ Thomas Reardon, Peter Timmer and Julio Berdegue, 2004. “The rapid rise of supermarkets in developing countries”. Journal of Agricultural and Development Economics, Vol 1 No 2.
  14. ^ Reardon et al, op cit
  15. ^ Kevin Chen, Andrew W. Shepherd & Carlos A. da Silva, “Changes in food retailing in Asia”.
  16. ^ Andrew W. Shepherd and Eva Gálvez. “The response of traditional marketing channels to the growth of supermarkets and to the demand for safer and higher quality fruit and vegetables, with particular reference to Asia”. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Fresh Produce Supply Chain Management, Chiang Mai 2006. pp.304-313. FAO, Bangkok.[1]
  17. ^ Gajanayake, R., Gajanayake, S., Surangi, H 2011, ‘The impact of selected visual merchandising techniques on patronage intentions in supermarkets’, International Conference on Business and Economic Research, p1130-1165
  18. ^ NACS Magazine | Category Close Up: Take Bread to the Bank
  19. ^ Browne, Karen (April 2010). “Trolley Psychology: Choice unlocks the psychological secrets of the supermarket and shows you how to avoid spending more than you mean to”. Australian Consumer’s Association Choice Magazine (4): p60..
  20. ^ 2 Browne, K 2010, ‘Trolley Psychology: Choice unlocks the psychological secrets of the supermarket and shows you how to avoid spending more than you mean to’, Choice, Australasian Consumers’ Association, Chippendale, NSW, Australia, no. 4, April, p60, retrieved 14 October, Expanded Academic Database
  21. ^ Bucklin, Louis P. (Nov 1967). “Competitive Impact of a New Supermarket”. Journal of Marketing Research 4 (4): 356–361.

[edit] Further reading

  • Henry Petroski, Shopping By Design: Supermarkets, like other inventions, didn’t just happen; they were designed, developed—and patented., American Scientist Volume: 93 Number: 6 Page: 491 [7].
  • William Greer, America the Bountiful: How the supermarket came to main street, Food Marketing Institute, 1986. ISBN 999925568X OCLC 14357784
  • Sowell, Thomas. Basic Economics (Third Edition, 2007 Basic Books). Pages 92-94 describe the competition between the dominant grocery chains in the United States through the 20th century and beyond.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Supermarket

Sumber dari : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Supermarket



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