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{December 10, 2011}  

Harbor

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For other uses, see Harbor (disambiguation).

Capri harbor, Italy seen from Anacapri

A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences), or haven, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use. Harbors can be natural or artificial. An artificial harbor has deliberately-constructed breakwaters, sea walls, or jettys, or otherwise, they could have been constructed by dredging, and these require maintenance by further periodic dredging. An example of the former kind is at Long Beach Harbor, California, and an example of the latter kind is San Diego Harbor, California, which was, under natural conditions, too shallow for modern merchant ships and warships.

In contrast, a natural harbor is surrounded on several sides by prominences of land. An example of this kind of harbor is San Francisco Bay, California.

Harbors and ports are often confused with each other. A port is a facility for loading and unloading vessels; ports are usually located in harbors.

Contents

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[edit] Artificial harbors

Artificial harbors are frequently built for use as ports. The largest artificially created harbor is Jebel Ali in Dubai.[1] Other large and busy artificial harbors are located in: Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Houston, Texas; Long Beach, California; and San Pedro, California.

[edit] Natural harbors

A natural harbor in Vizhinjam, India

A natural harbor is a landform where a part of a body of water is protected and deep enough to furnish anchorage. Many such harbors are rias. Natural harbors have long been of great strategic naval and economic importance, and many great cities of the world are located on them. Having a protected harbor reduces or eliminates the need for breakwaters as it will result in calmer waves inside the harbor. For example is Subic, Zambales in the Philippines.

[edit] Ice-free harbors

For harbors near the North and South Poles, being ice-free is an important advantage, especially when it is year-round. Examples of these include Murmansk, Russia; Pechenga, Russia, formerly Petsamo, Finland); Vladivostok, Russia; St. Petersburg, Russia; Hammerfest, Norway; Vardø, Norway; and Prince Rupert Harbour, Canada. The world’s southmost harbor, located at Antarctica’s Winter Quarters Bay (77° 50′ South), is potentially ice-free, depending on the summertime pack ice conditions.[2]

[edit] Important harbors

The tiny harbor at the village of Clovelly, Devon, England

Old Harbour in Lüneburg, Germany.

The harbor of Piraeus in Greece.

Although the world’s busiest port is a hotly contested title, in 2006 the world’s busiest harbor by cargo tonnage was the Port of Shanghai.[3]

The following are large natural harbors:

Other notable harbors include:

[edit] See also

Sumber dari : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harbor



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