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Cartier

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Cartier S.A.
Cartier logo.png
Type Subsidiary of Richemont
Industry Jewellers
Founded 1847, in Paris, France
Headquarters Paris, France13 rue de la Paix 75008 Paris
Key people Bernard Fornas, CEO
Louis-François Cartier, Founder
Products Jewelry
Website cartier.com

Cartier S.A., commonly known as Cartier (English: /ˈkɑrti.eɪ/, French: [kaʁtje]), is a French luxury jeweler and watch manufacturer. The corporation carries the name of the Cartier family of jewellers whose control ended in 1964 and who were known for numerous pieces including the “Bestiary” (best illustrated by the Panthère brooch of the 1940s created for Wallis Simpson), the diamond necklace created for Bhupinder Singh the Maharaja of Patiala and in 1904 the first practical wristwatch, the “Santos.” Cartier SA is headquartered in Paris.

The company has a long and distinguished history of serving royalty, as well as stars and celebrities. One Prince of Wales hailed Cartier as “Joaillier des Rois, Roi des Joailliers” (Jeweller to Kings, King of Jewellers”). Cartier received an order for 27 tiaras for the coronation of the future British King. King Edward VII was crowned in 1902 and in 1904 he honoured the Company with the Royal warrant of supplier to the Royal Court of England. Similar warrants soon followed from the courts of Spain, Portugal, Russia, Siam, Greece, Serbia, Belgium, Romania, Egypt and finally Albania, and also from the House of Orleans and the Principality of Monaco.

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[edit] History

[edit] Under the Cartier family

Cartier was founded in Paris in 1847 by Louis-François Cartier when he took over the workshop of his master.[1] In 1874, his son Alfred Cartier took over the administration of the company, but it was Alfred’s sons Louis, Pierre and Jacques, who were responsible for establishing the worldwide brand name of Cartier.

In 1904, the Brazilian pioneer aviator, Alberto Santos-Dumont complained of the unreliability and impracticality of using pocket watches while flying to his friend Louis Cartier. Cartier designed a flat wristwatch with a distinctive square bezel. This watch was not only a hit with Santos-Dumont, but also with Cartier’s many clients. Thus, out of this timeless design, the “Santos” was born. This was the first men’s wristwatch (Patek Phillipe made the first wristwatch, but for a woman and as a one-off).

Mackay Emerald and Diamond Necklance, 168 carats Muzo, Colombia, 1931.

Louis retained responsibility for the Paris branch, moving to the Rue de la Paix, in 1899. He was responsible for some of the company’s most celebrated designs, like the mystery clocks[2] (a type of clock with a transparent dial and so named because their works are hidden[3]), fashionable wristwatches and exotic orientalist Art Deco designs, including the colorful “Tutti Frutti” jewels.

In 1907, Cartier signed a contract with Edmond Jaeger, who agreed to exclusively supply the movements for Cartier watches. By this time, Cartier had branches in London, New York and St. Petersburg and was quickly becoming one of the most successful watch companies in the world. The introduction of the Baignoire and Tortue models (both of which are still in production today) took place in 1912, followed by the Tank model’s debut in 1917. The Cartier tank model, designed by Louis Cartier, was inspired from the newly introduced war machines on the Western Front. This line too has survived, with over thirty varieties now being made since.

In the early 1920s Cartier formed a joint company with Edward Jaeger (of Jaeger-LeCoultre) to produce movements solely for Cartier. Thus was the European watch & clock company born, although Cartier continued to use movements from other great makers. Cartier watches can be found with movements from Vacheron Constantin, Audemars-Piguet, Movado and LeCoultre. It was also during this period that Cartier began adding its own reference numbers to the watches it sold, usually by stamping a four-digit code on the underside of a lug. Jacques took charge of the London operation and eventually moved to the current address at New Bond Street.

Pierre Cartier established the New York City branch in 1909, moving in 1917 to the current location of 653 Fifth Avenue, the Neo-Renaissance mansion of Morton Freeman Plant (son of railroad tycoon Henry B. Plant) and designed by architect C.P.H. Gilbert. Cartier acquired the mansion from the Plants in exchange for $100 in cash and a double-stranded natural pearl necklace valued at the time at $1 million.[4]

Among the Cartier team was Charles Jacqueau, who joined Louis Cartier in 1909 for his entire life, and Jeanne Toussaint, who was Director of Fine Jewelry from 1933 on. After the death of Pierre in 1964, Jean-Jacques Cartier (Jacques’s son), Claude Cartier (Louis’s son), and Marionne Claudelle (Pierre’s daughter) — who respectively headed the Cartier affiliates in London, New York and Paris — sold the businesses.

[edit] Post-family ownership

In 1972 a group of investors led by Joseph Kanoui bought Cartier Paris. President Robert Hocq, the creator of the concept of “Les Must de Cartier” (a staff member is said to have said “Cartier, It’s a must!”[1] meaning something one simply must have) in collaboration with Alain Dominique Perrin, General Director, began introducing new products representative of the status and quality of the Cartier of the past. In 1974 and 1976 respectively, Cartier London and Cartier New York were bought back. In 1979 the Cartier interests were combined together, creating “Cartier Monde” uniting and controlling Cartier Paris, London and New York.

Cartier merged together in 1981 with “Les Must de Cartier”, and Alain Dominique Perrin was appointed Chairman of Cartier SAA and Cartier International. The very next year, Micheline Kanoui assumed responsibility for jewellery design and launched her first collection “Nouvelle Joaillerie”. In 1984, Alain Dominique Perrin founded the “Fondation Cartier pour l’art Contemporain”(the Cartier Foundation of Contemporary Art) as proof of his determination to bring Cartier without delay into the twenty- first century, by forming an association with living artists.

In 1986, the French Ministry for Culture appointed Alain Dominique Perrin head of the “Mission sur le mecenat d’entreprise” (a commission to study a business patronage of the Arts). Two years later, Cartier acquired a majority holding in Piaget and Baume & Mercier. The next year in 1989/1990 the first major exhibition of the Cartier collection was staged, at the request of a museum of international renown: “l’Art de Cartier” had a triumphant success at the Musee du Petit Palais in Paris.

Wishing to advance the influence of High Watchmaking, Alain Dominque Perrin founded an international committee in 1991, Comite International de la Haute Horlogerie, to organise the first salon international de la Haute Horlogerie exhibition which was finally held on 15 April 1991. This has become an annual meeting place in Geneva for professionals in High Watchmaking. The next year, the second great exhibition of “l’Art de Cartier” was held at the Ermitage Museum in St Petersburg. The very next year, the “Vendome Luxury Group” was formed as an umbrella company to combine Cartier, Alfred Dunhill, Montblanc, Piaget, Baume & Mercier, Karl Lagerfeld, Chloe, Sulka, Hackett, Seeger.

In 1994, the Cartier Foundation moved to the Rive Gauche and opened their new headquarters, an architectural work of art designed for them by the architect, Jean Nouvel. Following the accidental death of Robert Hocq in December of that year; his sister, Brigitte Hocq, was appointed chairman of the company. Joseph Kanoui was appointed vice president of Cartier Monde. The next year, a major exhibition of the Cartier Antique Collection was held in Asia. In the following year, the Lausanne Hermitage Foundation in Switzerland hosted the exhibition “Splendours of the Jewellery”, presenting a hundred and fifty years of artistic creation by Maison Cartier. Curently, Cartier is owned, through Richmont, by the South African Rupert Family.

[edit] Cartier today

Cartier is located in the former Morton F. Plant House on Fifth Avenue in New York

Cartier operates more than 200 stores in 125 countries, with four emblematic boutiques world-wide:

Paris – 13, Rue de la Paix
London – 175-177 New Bond Street
New York – 653 Fifth Avenue
Tokyo - Minami Aoyama

[edit] Products

[edit] Collections

The product range of Cartier ranges from timepieces, leather goods to accessories. Each product were made available under a set of collections. The collections at Cartier are as follow:

  • Happy Birthday
  • Trinity de Cartier
  • LOVE
  • Panthère de Cartier
  • Santos de Cartier
  • Caresse d’orchidées par Cartier
  • La Dona de Cartier
  • Tank Française
  • Pasha de Cartier
  • Collection les must*

[edit] Timepieces

Main article: Cartier watches

Cartier Panthere lady’s 2 tone watch.

Throughout the years, Cartier have developed many different collection for its timepieces. The classic collections are as follows:

  • Calibre de Cartier
  • Pasha de Cartier
  • Ligne 21 de Cartier
  • Tank
  • Santos de Cartier
  • Baignoire
  • Tonneau

[edit] Leather goods

[edit] Accessories

[edit] Timeline

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  • 1847 – Louis-François Cartier inherited the jewelry workshop at 29, Rue Montorgueil in Paris from his master Adophe Picard, founding the house of Cartier.
  • 1856 – Princess Mathilde, niece of Napoleon I and cousin to Emperor Napoleon III, made her first purchase from Cartier.
  • 1859 – Cartier moved the workshop to 9, Boulevard des Italiens. Empress Eugénie, wife of Napoleon III and regent of France at the time, became a Cartier client.
  • 1888 – Creation of the first ladies jewelry bracelet-watch.
  • 1899 – Cartier moved into the its present day headquarter, situated in the prestigious location at 13, Rue de la Paix.
  • 1900 – Introduction of various styles of neoclassical jewelry mounted in platinum, which became exceptionally popular amongst aristocrats
  • 1902 – Cartier opened a new boutique at 4, New Burlington Street in London, on the same day with the coronation of King Edward VII
  • 1904 – Cartier received its first appointment as official purveyor to King Edward VII of the United Kingdom. His consort, Queen Alexandra purchased a necklace designed with Indian influence. Later that year, Cartier received another appointment as the purveyor for King Alfronso XIII of Spain.[5] The first Santos watch was created by Louis Cartier, as he designed a watch to be worn on wrist with a leather strap for his friend Alberto Santos-Dumont, a Brazilian aviator.
  • 1905 – Appointment as the official purveyor for King Carlos I of Portugal.
  • 1906 – The creation of first jewellery design to incorporate the Art Deco style, characterised by its abstract and geometric variations. The first Tonneau wristwatch was also created this year.
  • 1907 – Cartier held its first exhibition and sale in Saint Petersburg, at the Grand Hotel Europe. Shortly after, it was appointed as official purveyor to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.[6]
  • 1908 – Appointment as official purveyor to King Chulalongkorn of Siam.
  • 1909 – Second boutique in the London was opened at 175-176, New Bond Street in London. Pierre Cartier subsequently opened a second boutique in New York as well, located at 712 Fifth Avenue. A folding buckle for wristwatches was patented in this year.
  • 1910 – Pierre Cartier sold the famous blue Hope Diamond to an American customer, Evalyn Walsh McLean.
  • 1911 – Official launch of the Santos de Cartier wristwatch, inspired by the 1904 model. Jacque Cartier travelled to India to attend the Delhi Durbar, and to the Persian Gulf.
  • 1912 – Creation of the first mystery clock: Model A. A delegation from the City of Paris presented Tsar Nicholas II with the Cartier Imperial Egg (now at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York). The first baguette-cut diamonds made an appearance. Launch of the Tortue watch. The first comet clocks were created.
  • 1913 – Appointment as official purveyor to King Peter I of Serbia.
  • 1914 – The bezel on a lady’s round wrist watch was paved with diamonds and onyx to create the first “panther” motif. Appointment as official purveyor to Duke Philippe of Orleans.
  • 1917 – The New York store moved to 653, Fifth Avenue, the mansion home of Morton F. Plant which Pierre Cartier acquired in exchange for a double-strand necklace of 55 and 73 natural pearls.First studies conducted for the Tank watch.
  • 1918 – Creation of batons for Field-Marshals Foch and Pétain.
  • 1919 – Launch of the Tank watch. Establishment, in New York, of the European Watch & Clock Co. Inc. Appointment as official purveyor to King Albert I of Belgium.
  • 1921 – Appointment as official purveyor to the Prince of Wales, future King Edward VIII who, on abdicating in 1936, became the Duke of Windsor. Creation of the Tank cintrée watch.
  • 1922 – Creation of the Tank Louis Cartier and Tank Chinoise watches.
  • 1923 – Creation of the first portico mystery clock, crowned with a statuette called Billiken.
  • 1924 – Creation of the three-band ring and bracelet combining gold in three colours, known in the United States as Trinity. Jean Cocteau adopted the ring and made it fashionable among Parisian society.
  • 1925 – Cartier made a memorable appearance at the International Exhibition of Modern Industrial and Decorative Arts in Paris, in the Pavillon de l’Élégance. Death of Alfred Cartier.
  • 1926 – Creation of the Baguette watch. Cartier jewellery in its famous red box appeared on the Broadway stage in Anita Loos’ play Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.
  • 1928 – A loyal American customer, Marjorie Merriweather Post, purchased from Cartier in London earrings once worn by Queen Marie-Antoinette of France. Creation of the Tortue single pushpiece chronograph watch.
  • 1929 – Appointment as official purveyor to King Fouad I of Egypt and participation in the Exhibition of French Arts in Cairo.Creation of the Tank à guichets watch.
  • 1931 – Creation of the mystery pocket watch.
  • 1932 – Creation of the Tank basculante watch.
  • 1933 – Jeanne Toussaint was made head of Cartier Fine Jewellery. Cartier filed a patent for the “invisible mount”, a stone-setting technique in which the metal of the mount disappears to show only the stones.
  • 1935 – Cartier opened in Monte Carlo.
  • 1936 – Creation of the Tank asymétrique watch.
  • 1938 – Cartier opened in Cannes. One of the smallest wristwatches in the world, by Cartier, was given to Princess Elizabeth of The United Kingdom.
  • 1939 – Appointment as official purveyor to King Zog I of Albania.
  • 1940 – General de Gaulle founded the Free France movement in London, for which he received Cartier’s steadfast support. Some of his speeches were written in the office which Jacques Cartier placed at the general’s disposal.
  • 1942 – Creation of the “Caged Bird” brooch as a symbol of the Occupation. In 1944, the “Freed Bird” brooch celebrated the Liberation of France.
  • 1945 – Pierre Cartier was now the head of Cartier Paris. Claude, Louis’ son, took the helm of Cartier New York while Jean-Jacques Cartier, Jacques’ son, was the head of Cartier London.
  • 1947 – Cartier celebrated its centennial.
  • 1949 – The Duke and Duchess of Windsor purchased a platinum panther brooch on a 152.35-carat (30.47 g) Kashmir cabochon sapphire in Paris. Cartier would buy the brooch for its own collection in 1987.
  • 1950 – Creation of a watch in the form of a ship’s wheel.The legendary Hollywood actress Gloria Swanson appeared in Sunset Boulevard wearing the two diamond and rock crystal bracelets that she had bought from Cartier in 1930.
  • 1953 – Marilyn Monroe sang “Cartier!” in the film version of Gentlemen Prefer Blondes.
  • 1954 – Création pour la Duchesse de Windsor d’un face-à-main en or jaune, émail noiret émeraudes représentant un tigre.
  • 1955 – Creation of Jean Cocteau’s sword for his election to the Académie française, to the artist’s own design.
  • 1956 – For her marriage to Prince Rainier, Princess Grace received numerous gifts of jewellery by Cartier including her engagement ring, set with a 12-carat (2.4 g) emerald-cut diamond.
  • 1957 – A loyal customer, Barbara Hutton, purchased a tiger brooch in yellow gold,onyx and jonquil diamonds.
  • 1967 – Creation of new watches in London including the famous Crashwatch.
  • 1968 – The Mexican actress María Félix commissioned Cartier to make a diamond necklace in the form of a serpent. Cartier granted Robert Hocq a licence to create an oval lighter with a retractable wheel under the Cartier name.Creation of the Maxi Oval watch.
  • 1969 – Cartier acquired an exceptional 69.42-carat (13.88 g) pear-shaped diamond diamond which it sold to Richard Burton. He gave it to Elizabeth Taylor. The famous Cartier Diamond was thus renamed the Taylor-Burton. Opening of Cartier in Geneva. Creation of the Love bracelet.
  • 1970 – Opening of Cartier in Hong Kong.
  • 1971 – Opening of Cartier in Munich.
  • 1972 – Cartier Paris was taken over by a group of investors led by Joseph Kanoui.
  • 1973 – Creation of Les Must de Cartier by Robert Hocq with Alain-Dominique Perrin.
  • 1974 – Launch of the first leather collection in burgundy. Cartier loaned a large part of its Art Deco jewellery collection for the filming of The Great Gatsby, directed by Jack Clayton and starring Robert Redford and Mia Farrow.
  • 1975 – Cartier celebrated the centenary anniversary of the birth of Louis Cartier. Opening in Monte Carlo of the first major retrospective, “Louis Cartier: Art Deco Masterpieces”.
  • 1976 – First collection of Les Must de Cartier vermeil watches.Retrospective in New York entitled “Retrospective Louis Cartier: One Hundred and One Years of the Jeweler’s Art”. Creation of the first oval pen.
  • 1978 – Creation of the Santos de Cartier watch with a gold and steel bracelet.Creation of the first Cartier scarf collection.
  • 1979 – Cartier Paris, Cartier London and Cartier New York were united as a single legal entity.
  • 1981 – Launch of the Must de Cartier and Santos de Cartier perfumes.
  • 1982 – Launch of the first New Jewellery collection on the theme of gold and stones.
  • 1983 – Lancement des lunettes Cartier avec la collection Must. Creation of the Collection Ancienne Cartier (later the Cartier Collection) to record and illustrate how the jeweller’s art and its history have evolved. Creation of the Panthère de Cartier watch.
  • 1984 – Launch of the second New Jewellery collection on the theme of gold and pearls.Creation of the Fondation Cartier pour l’Art Contemporain in Jouy-en-Josas. Cartier became partner to the International Polo Tournament in Windsor, United Kingdom.
  • 1985 – Launch of the Pasha de Cartier watch.
  • 1986 – Launch of the third New Jewelry collection on the theme of the panther.
  • 1987 – Launch of the Panthère de Cartier perfume. Creation of Les Maisons de Cartier tableware (porcelain, crystal and silver).
  • 1988 – Launch of the fourth New Jewelry collection on the theme of Egypt.
  • 1989 – Launch of the Tank Américaine watch. The Art of Cartier, the first major retrospective in Paris, was held at the Petit Palais.
  • 1991 – Establishment of the Comité International de la Haute Horlogerie (CIHH). The first Salon International de la Haute Horlogerie (SIHH) was held in Geneva.
  • 1992 – “The Art of Cartier” exhibition was held at the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg.
  • 1994 – The Fondation Cartier pour l’Art Contemporain moved to the Left Bank in Paris to a building on Boulevard Raspail, the work of the architect Jean Nouvel.
  • 1995 – Creation of the Pasha C watch in steel. Launch of the So Pretty de Cartier perfume. “The Art of Cartier, the World of French Jewelry Art” exhibition was held at the Tokyo Metropolitan Teien Art Museum in Japan.
  • 1996 – Creation of the Tank Française watch collection. Launch of the sixth New Jewellery collection on the theme of Creation. Creation of the Tank ring. “Cartier, Splendours of Jewellery”, a retrospective exhibition was held at the Hermitage Foundation in Lausanne, Switzerland.
  • 1997 – A jubilee year. Cartier celebrated its 150th anniversary with exceptional Fine Jewellery creations including a necklace in the form of a serpent, paved with diamonds and set with two pear-cut emeralds of 205 and 206 carats (41 g). The “Cartier 1900-1939” retrospective was held at the British Museum in London and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
  • 1998 – Creation of the Collection Privée Cartier Paris Fine Watch collection.
  • 1999 – Creation of the Paris Nouvelle Vague Cartier jewellery collection, inspired by Paris. “The Art of Cartier, A splendor of Time” retrospective was held at the Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes in Mexico City with guest of honour the Mexican actress María Félix. The “Cartier 1900-1939” exhibition moved to the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago.
  • 2000 – Creation of a jewellery collection to take Cartier into the 21st century.
  • 2001 – Creation of the Délices de Cartier jewellery collection. Launch of the Roadster watch. Cartier displayed the ceremonial necklace made for the Maharajah of Patiala at the 21st Biennale des Antiquaires in Paris. The intersection of Fifth Avenue and 52nd Street in New York was officially named “Place de Cartier”.
  • 2002 – Creation of the Tank Divan watch. The “Cartier Design viewed by Sottsass” exhibition was shown at the Vitra Design Museum in Berlin and the Palazzo Reale in Milan. It would later travel to the Daigoji Temple in Kyoto and the Houston Museum of Fine Arts.
  • 2003 – Launch of the Le Baiser du Dragon and Les Délices de Goa jewellery collections. The Kimberley Process was implemented and Cartier immediately adopted measures to end trade in conflict diamonds. Cartier contributed to the “Jean Cocteau, Spanning the Century” exhibition at the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris.Cartier opened a boutique at 154, Avenue des Champs-Élysées in Paris.
  • 2004 – Marking the centenary of the Santos de Cartier watch, creation of the Santos 100, Santos Demoiselle and Santos-Dumont watches. Cartier presented “The Art of Cartier”, a retrospective exhibition at the Shanghai Museum. Presentation of the historic Star of the South Diamond at the 22nd Biennale des Antiquaires in Paris.
  • 2005 – Creation of the Caresse d’Orchidées par Cartier Fine Jewellery collection. Creation of a bespoke perfume service at 13, Rue de la Paix. Cartier co-founded the Council for Responsible Jewellery Practices.Cartier gave its support to the Women’s Forum by becoming an active member.
  • 2006 – Creation of the La Doña de Cartier watch. The first “Love Charity” international fundraising sale was held. Cartier presented a special award for female business entrepreneurs at the Women’s Forum.
  • 2007 – Creation of the Inde Mystérieuse Fine Jewelry collection.Creation of the Ballon Bleu de Cartierwatch. The Cartier 1899-1949, The Journey of a Style exhibition was held at the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation Museum in Lisbon. The Cartier, Innovation through the 20th Century exhibition was held at the Kremlin Museum in Moscow.
  • 2008 – “The Art of Cartier” at the National Museum of art, Deoksugung, of Seoul Creation of the Ballon bleu watch.
  • 2009 – “Story of…. Memories of Cartier creation” exhibition, by Tokujin Yoshioka, at the Tokyo National Museum Creation of the Santos 100 Skeletonwatch “Cartier Treasures- King of Jewellers, Jewellers to Kings” exhibition at the Palace Museum, Beijing. Creation of the “Secrets et Merveilles” Fine Jewellery collection”Cartier and America” exhibition at The Legion of Honor – Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco.

[edit] See also

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Cartier S.A.
Jenis Anak perusahaan Richemont
Industri Perhiasan
Didirikan 1847 di Paris, Perancis
Kantor pusat Bendera Perancis Paris, Perancis 13 rue de la Paix Paris 75008
Tokoh penting Bernard Fornas, CEO
Louis-François Cartier, pendiri
Produk Perhiasan
Situs web www.cartier.com

Cartier S.A. atau umum dikenal sebagai “Cartier” adalah produsen perhiasan dan jam mewah Perancis. Perusahaan ini tetap memakai nama Cartier meskipun sejak tahun 1964 kendali atas perusahaan ini sudah tidak berada di tangan keluarga Cartier. Cartier terkenal sebagai pembuat perhiasan terkenal. Di antara perhiasan yang pernah dibuat Cartier adalah “Bestiary” (perhiasan miniatur hewan buas). Karya terbaik Cartier di antaranya bros Panthère (macan tutul) dari tahun 1940-an yang dibuat untuk Wallis Simpson), kalung berlian yang dibuat untuk Bhupinder Singh Maharaja dari Patiala, dan “Santos”, sebuah jam tangan praktis yang pertama pada tahun 1904. Kantor pusat Cartier SA berada di Paris.

Perusahaan ini memiliki sejarah yang panjang dan bergengsi sebagai pembuat perhiasan bagi orang-orang kerajaan, dan juga para bintang dan selebriti. Pangeran Wales pernah memuji Cartier sebagai “Joaillier des Rois, Roi des Joailliers” (Pembuat Perhiasan Para Raja, Raja Pembuat Perhiasan”). Cartier telah menerima order membuat 27 buah tiara untuk upacara penobatan raja. Raja Edward VII dinobatkan pada tahun 1902, dan sebagai penghormatan kepada Cartier, ia mengeluarkan waran kerajaan pada tahun 1904 yang menunjuk Cartier sebagai pemasok resmi Istana Kerajaan Inggris. Waran-waran serupa segera menyusul dikeluarkan oleh istana Spanyol, Portugal, Rusia, Siam, Yunani, Serbia, Belgia, Romania, Mesir, dan akhirnya Albania, serta dari House of Orléans dan Kepangeranan Monako.

Daftar isi

[sembunyikan]

[sunting] Sejarah

[sunting] Di bawah keluarga Cartier

Cartier didirikan di Paris pada tahun 1847 oleh Louis-François Cartier setelah ia mengambil alih sanggar kerja milik majikannya.[1] Pada 1874, putranya yang bernama Alfred Cartier mengambil alih administrasi perusahaan, tapi merek Cartier baru dikenal di seluruh dunia berkat usaha putra Alfred yang bernama Louis, Pierre, dan Jacques.

Pada tahun 1904, penerbang perintis berkebangsaan Brasil Alberto Santos-Dumont mengeluh kepada temannya yang bernama Louis Cartier soal jam saku miliknya yang tidak dapat diandalkan dan tidak praktis untuk dipakai terbang. Sewaktu mengemudikan pesawat, tangannya tetap harus memegang kemudi. Setiap kali ingin melihat jam, ia harus mengeluarkan jam saku dari kantongnya.[2]

Cartier mendesain sebuah jam tangan datar dilengkapi bezel persegi yang khas. Jam tangan buatan Cartier tersebut tidak hanya disukai Santos-Dumont, melainkan juga oleh banyak langganan Cartier yang lain. Dari desain yang tidak lekang oleh waktu ini lahir jam tangan model “Santos” yang sekaligus merupakan jam tangan pertama untuk pria. Patek Philippe adalah pembuat jam tangan yang pertama, tetapi hanya satu kali dan untuk seorang wanita.

Louis memperoleh tanggung jawab atas cabang Paris, dan pindah ke Rue de la Paix pada tahun 1899. Ia adalah tokoh di balik sejumlah desain kondang dari Cartier, di antaranya mystery clock[3] (jam duduk dengan dial transparan, dan sesuai namanya, “jam misterius” ini memiliki mesin jam yang tersembunyi[4]), jam tangan bergaya, dan desain Art Deco orientalis yang eksotis, termasuk permata “Tutti Frutti” yang berwarna-warni.

Pada 1907, Cartier menandatangani kontrak dengan Edmond Jaeger yang setuju untuk memasok mesin penggerak jam secara eksklusif untuk jam-jam Cartier. Pada saat itu, Cartier sudah menjadi salah satu perusahaan jam tersukses di dunia, serta memiliki cabang di London, New York, dan St. Petersburg. Pada tahun 1912, Cartier mulau memproduksinya model jam Baignoire dan Tortue (keduanya masih diproduksi sekarang), diikuti oleh model jam yang disebut Tank pada tahun 1917. Model jam Tank dirancang oleh Louis Cartier. Inspirasinya berasal dari mulai dipakainya tank sebagai mesin perang di Front Barat Perang Dunia I. Jam Cartier Tank dan lebih dari tiga puluh jenis variannya masih diproduksi hingga kini.

Pada awal 1920-an, Cartier mendirikan perusahaan patungan dengan Edward Jaeger (dari Jaeger-LeCoultre) untuk memproduksi penggerak yang dibuat khusus untuk Cartier. Meskipun demikian, jam-jam Cartier juga dibuat dengan menggunakan mesin penggerak dari Vacheron Constantin, Audemars-Piguet, Movado, dan LeCoultre. Sekitar periode itu pula, Cartier mulai menerakan nomor seri produksi pada jam-jam yang dijual mereka, biasanya dengan cara mencetakkan kode empat digit di bagian bawah lug. Jacques mengambil alih usaha di London, dan akhirnya memindahkan toko ke alamat yang sekarang di New Bond Street.

Pierre Cartier mendirikan cangan di New York City pada tahun 1909 sebelum pindah pada tahun 1917 ke alamat yang sekarang di 653 Fifth Avenue di sebuah mansion bergaya Neo-Renaissance milik Morton Freeman Plant (putra dari industriawan jalan kereta api Henry B. Plant) dan didesain oleh arsitek C.P.H. Gilbert. Cartier membeli mansion tersebut dari keluarga Plant hanya dengan membayar uang tunai sejumlah AS$100 dan sebuah kalung mutiara alami beruntai dua yang waktu itu berharga AS$1 juta.[5]

Di antara tokoh yang berada di belakang tim Cartier adalah Charles Jacqueau yang bergabung dengan Louis Cartier pada tahun 1909 untuk seumur hidupnya, dan Jeanne Toussaint yang menjabat Direktur Fine Jewelry sejak 1933. Setelah wafatnya Pierre pada tahun 1964, Jean-Jacques Cartier (putra Jacques), Claude Cartier (putra Louis), dan Marionne Claudelle (putri Pierre), masing-masing kepala afiliasi Cartier di London, New York, dan Paris sepakat untuk menjual bisnis mereka.

[sunting] Kepemilikan pascakeluarga Cartier

Pada tahun 1972, kelompok investor yang dipimpin oleh Joseph Kanoui membeli Cartier Paris. Presiden Robert Hocq yang menciptakan slogan “Les Must de Cartier” (slogan berasal dari salah seorang staf yang sering berkata “Cartier, It’s a must!”[1] berarti barang yang harus dimiliki seseorang) bekerja sama dengan Komisaris Utama Alain Dominique Perrin mulai memperkenalkan produk-produk baru yang mewakili status dan kualitas Cartier tempo dulu. Pada tahun 1974 dan 1976 secara berturut-turut, mereka membeli Cartier London dan Cartier New York. Pada tahun 1979, kepemilikan Cartier merger sebagai “Cartier Monde” yang melebur dan mengendalikan Cartier Paris, Cartier London, dan Cartier New York.

Cartier merger dengan “Les Must de Cartier” pada tahun 1981. Alain Dominique Perrin ditunjuk sebagai Ketua Cartier SAA dan Cartier International. Tahun berikutnya, Micheline Kanoui mendapat tanggung jawab atas desain perhiasan, dan meluncurkan koleksi pertamanya yang diberi nama Nouvelle Joaillerie. Pada tahun 1984, Alain Dominique Perrin mendirikan Fondation Cartier pour l’art Contemporain (Yayasan Cartier untuk Seni Kontemporer) sebagai bukti niatnya untuk membawa Cartier ke abad ke-21 dengan menggandeng para seniman kontemporer.

Pada tahun 1986, Kementerian Budaya Perancis menunjuk Alain Dominique Perrin sebagai kepala Mission sur le mecenat d’entreprise (Komisi Pembelajaran Penaungan Usaha Seni). Du tahun kemudian Cartier memperoleh saham mayoritas di Piaget dan Baume & Mercier. Pada tahun 1989/1990, Cartier bersama Musee du Petit Palais mengadakan pameran yang diberi nama l’Art de Cartier. Pameran tersebut merupakan pameran pertama yang diadakan secara besar-besaran untuk koleksi Cartier.

Dengan ambisi untuk memajukan industri pembuatan jam berkualitas tinggi, Alain Dominque Perrin mendirikan sebuah komite internasional yang diberi nama Comite International de la Haute Horlogerie pada tahun 1991. Komite tersebut mengorganisir pameran internasional pertama haute horlogerie bernama salon international de la Haute Horlogerie yang dibuka 15 April 1991. Pameran tersebut kemudian dijadikan tempat pertemuan tahunan para ahli horologi di Jenewa. Pada tahun 1992, eksibisi besar yang kedua kali untuk ‘l’Art de Cartier diadakan di Museum Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Perusahaan Vendome Luxury Group didirikan pada 1993 untuk menaungi perusahaan-perusahaan barang mewah, terutama Cartier sebagai sumber pendapatan terbesar, dan perusahaan bermerek seperti Montblanc, Lancel, Baume & Mercier, Vacheron Constantin, Chloé, Piaget, dan Alfred Dunhill.[6]
Pada 1994, Cartier Foundation pindah ke Rive Gauche dan membuka kantor pusat baru di gedung yang dibangun sebagai karya seni arsitektur oleh arsitek Jean Nouvel. Setelah Presiden Direktur Cartier Robert Hocq meninggal akibat kecelakaan pada Desember 1993, saudara perempuannya yang bernama Brigitte Hocq ditunjuk sebagai komisaris utama. Joseph Kanoui ditunjuk sebagai wakil presiden direktur Cartier Monde. Tahun berikutnya (1994), pameran besar Koleksi Antik Cartier diadakan di Asia. Pada tahun 1995, Lausanne Hermitage Foundation di Swiss menyelenggarakan pameran Splendours of the Jewellery yang memamerkan karya-karya artistik selama seratus lima puluh tahun sejarah Maison Cartier.

[sunting] Cartier sekarang ini

Toko Cartier di bekas mansion Morton F. Plant House, Fifth Avenue, New York City.

Cartier mengoperasikan lebih dari 200 toko di 125 negara[7], termasuk empat butik Cartier di seluruh dunia:

[sunting] Produk

[sunting] Koleksi

Produk-produk Cartier sangat beragam, mulai dari alat pengukur waktu, barang-barang kulit, hingga aksesori. Setiap kategori produk disebut “koleksi”, dan masing-masing memiliki nama sendiri, di antaranya:

  • Happy Birthday
  • Trinity de Cartier
  • LOVE
  • Pathère de Cartier
  • Santos de Cartier
  • Caresse d’orchideès par Cartier
  • La Dona de Cartier
  • Tank Fraçaise
  • Pasha de Cartier
  • Collection les must*

[sunting] Alat pengukur waktu

  • Calibre de Cartier
  • Pasha de Cartier
  • Ligne 21 de Cartier
  • Cartier Tank
  • Santos de Cartier
  • Baignoire
  • Tonneau

[sunting] Lihat pula

Sumber dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartier_SA and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cartier_S.A.



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